ya_palomnik Archaeological studying of Kazan

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Казанский Кремль

Archaeological study of Kazan (XIX-XXI centuries)

     A.G. Sitdikov

     Studying the past Kazan involves many difficulties that are largely due to the lack of written sources, and on the ancient history of their complete absence. Lack of historical data actively replenishing materials of archaeological research conducted in the city from the XIX century.
     Problems in the history of archaeological study of the city devoted to a series of studies covering individual stages of work, some work analyzed the results of science researchers. The first attempts to summarize the collected material is making in the late 40-ies of XX century. N.F. Kalinin. Most fully this question to them was described in his doctoral dissertation, "The History of Kazan from ancient times to the XVII century." [5-8]. Similar surveys have been reflected in later publications A.H. Halikova [97; 98]. He proposed a periodization of the history of archaeological study set out to the end of the 70-ies of XX century. Installed in his work the chronological framework of early stages of the study were used in this article. In 90th years of XX century. There are publications devoted to the research of individual scientists: N.F. Kalininu, A.K. Halikov, O.S. Khovanskaya A.M. Efimova, F.Sh. Huzina [73; 79; 91; 93; 94 and others].
     Even during the drafting of the buffer zone of Kazan in 1988, the state protection stood only 4 archaeological monument. There are now 43 such facilities in the city [113]. Their total amount together with newly identified is about 200. Most major object of protection is the area of application of the archaeological cultural layer in the historical center of Kazan area of over 500 hectares.
     Significant concentration of archaeological heritage in the territory of Kazan explained its favorable natural and geographical conditions. District modern Kazan long, even before the arrival of the Bulgars, attracted the attention of primitive inhabitants of the Territory since the Mesolithic [113]. Traces of their presence within the modern city, have been identified on the northern outskirts of the village. Savinovo. It is curious that flint flakes and plates, some experts as the Mesolithic, also occur from the excavations of the Kazan Kremlin, and some late Paleolithic finds were discovered on the territory of the main building at KSU. Monuments of the second half of II - the beginning of the I millennium BC. e. represented by numerous settlements of the Bronze Age, presented Bakaldinskimi parking, a water station at the "Locomotive" and pos. Zaymishche. Among all the monuments stands aforementioned settlement "Kazanka II» - the remains of the ancient fortified settlement within the modern city. Since the early Iron Age (VIII-V cc. BC) is connected with one of the most significant monuments of culture - the ancient settlement "Kazanka I», located on the left bank of the Cape Kazanki. Individual finds this time were found on the territory of the Kazan Kremlin.
     In III-VI centuries. BC Basin was settled tribes Kazanki Azelino culture. Azelian materials are typically burial at Old glass factory unearthed in 1898 and the top layer of the settlement Kazanka II. In the X-XI centuries. Bulgarians appear here, laid the later military fortress, from which grew the modern Kazan.
     * * *
     Possibility of reconstruction of ancient and medieval history of Kazan was made possible only through the efforts of many generations of archaeologists for many generations from the XIX century. During this time held more than 300 archaeological research at various sites in the historic city center (Fig. 1). Of these, about 150 in the Kazan Kremlin (Fig. 2). By decisive round of questions, the extent of archaeological study and methods used during the entire archaeological research Kazan is divided into four stages.
     The first stage is associated with an increase in public interest in the history of the city at the beginning of the XIX century. One of the important reasons for this interest was the discovery of Kazan University. At this stage in the study of the history of the city begin to sporadically involved in archaeological research materials. Underway fragmentary, largely random, archaeological research. The culmination of this period can be considered mid-20s of last century, with the beginning of systematic and targeted archaeological research in Kazan.
     This managed to get information on archaeological surveys more than 20 objects and compiled a large duffel material [6; 8; 17; 98]. Among the findings are remarkable treasures in 1861, 1879, 1893 and 1909 period, consisting of a large number of ancient coins Juchi and the beginning of the XIV-XVI centuries., Plaster architectural ornaments from brick building XV-XVI centuries., Arms and horse equipment, including tips arrows and spears, stone balls, bits and fragments of the Bulgar-Tatar pottery [6; 8]. Most of the items were found in the Kazan Kremlin in the area of the Annunciation Cathedral. As a result of these charges in the hands of researchers got the evidence of the existence of the city no later than XIV., Ie in the era of the Golden Horde.
     Earliest known survey carried out in the Kremlin in 1881 and NP P.A.Ponomarevym 3agoskinym Junker School in the yard, near the West round tower [78]. Had traces of charred oak base fortification built in Khan's time.
     Among other notable discoveries of the late nineteenth century. deserve mention Bishop's found on the territory of suburban cottages (Kaban settlement) two Muslim tombstones standing at the grave of Princess Bulgar Altyn Bertek (um.1297) and Bulgarian Emir Hasan Bey (the end of the thirteenth century.?) [32; 74; 86; 114]; four stone tombstones XV-XVI centuries. with Armenian inscriptions found in the area of the third mountain (now st. Kalinina), where, obviously, Armenian colony was located in the vicinity of the khan of Kazan [76; 87]. Mention still another headstone in 1530, found, however, much earlier, in 1800, at the laying of the foundation of the building on the corner arcade modern streets of the Kremlin and Chernyshevsky [114]. He stood on the site of a Muslim cemetery XV-XVI centuries.
     Observations were then guided by known historians and ethnographers participants nuclear facilities Kazan University: NF Vysotsky, NP Zagoskin, VI Zausaylovym, PA Ponomarev, etc.
     The second stage covers the period from the mid 20-ies of XX century. until the end of the 1950s. It is associated primarily with the work N.F.Kalinina (1888-1959). They have active archaeological observations on the territory of the historic center and organized systematic archaeological excavations in the territory of the Kazan Kremlin. Studies revealed the prospect of studying cultural deposits Kremlin. They have organized more than 50 archaeological surveys 16 of them inside the Kremlin. The total area of the excavation was slightly more than 300 square meters. m In the works, in addition to NF Kalinina, participated: IN Borozdin, OS Khovanskaya, VF Smolin and others
     Initial stage (1923-1927 gg.) N.F.Kalinina archaeological research in the city of Kazan is the observation of the construction works, the accumulation of factual material. Attempts to create a long-term plan of archaeological study of the Kremlin.
     Starting N.F.Kalinina archaeological work in the Kazan Kremlin is related to surveys conducted together with other well-known archaeologist V.F.Smolinym in 1925 at the northern gate Junker School, at a depth of 3 m was detected brick hallway military XVIII century cellars. re-discovered AG Mukhamadiev in 1995 [3; 11; 15; 25].
     In the same 1925 N.F.Kalinin V.F.Smolin and observations made in the trench to the south-east tower Syuyumbike. They were the first picked stratigraphy Kremlin. Capacity of 160-198 cm layers, consisting of five horizons, chronologically linked to the first half of XVI-XX centuries. The first two layers were later bedding XVIII-XX centuries. Third stratum was defined as the second half of the XVI-XVII centuries. Fourth and fifth layers were accumulated, according to researchers in the first half of the XVI century. Bottom fifth layer consisted "of buried soil thickness of 15-20 cm (loam with humus) and the cultural layer of the first half of the XVI century.". The basis for determining the chronology of layers IV and V served krasnoglinyanaya dishes, among which, incidentally, were the fragments of pre-Mongol typical Bulgarian ceramics [9].
     Observations took place in 1926 during the spring flood Kazanki. Collecting materials produced by K.A.Gubaydullinym N.F.Kalininym and northern sole Kremlin hill [6]. They managed to collect an interesting collection of ceramics in krasnoglinyanoy Bulgarian traditions, among which there are burnished, reminiscent of the pre-Mongol Bulgarian ceramics.
     Then in northwestern soles Kremlin hill, south-west Tainitski tower V.V.Egerev P.S.Borisov and recorded a large void where at flood took a lot of water. [13] By assumption N.F.Kalinina, it could be the remains of course to cache drinking water and digging galleries in 1552 [20; 29].
     Archaeological research N.F.Kalinina in Kazan in 1928-1937 gg. marked the beginning of systematic studies of the Kazan Kremlin. They made charges of archaeological material, made the first attempts to classify and organize the glove material.
     In 1928 N.F.Kalinin led observations in pits in the Annunciation Cathedral. The uncovered area was two years about 100 m. m at the layer thickness of from 50 cm to 4 m [10; 11].
     In 1929, the pit was laid and the west wall of the former Palace of the church. In excavations at the Palace of the church were found the remains of a Muslim cemetery with burials, disturbed during construction, "mosque", as well as burial XVII-XVIII centuries. Recorded during the observation and 1934 [12]. In 1935, the northern wall of the Kremlin was laid a small excavation area of 12 square meters. m Here at the mainland were identified limestone rocks, associated perhaps with the early stone construction [14; 84].
     Besides archaeological work in the Kremlin, N.F.Kalininym observations were made on the streets and in the vicinity of Kazan [8; 25; 26; 27]. In 1935, an attempt was made Bishop's study area cottages at the alleged Kabansky settlements [14; 15]. Archaeologically investigated Monument to fallen soldiers, which revealed "Mordovia things XI-XII centuries." [28]. In total, there were conducted observations of more than 20.
     Observations in the southeastern part of the Kremlin N.F.Kalinin resumed in 1947 its archaeological research of the ancient fortress. [15] When benchmarking stratigraphy excavations in 1928, 1935, 1947. able to confirm the assumption that the initial development of the Kremlin hill north of the cape, where, according to estimates N.F.Kalinina layers Bulgarian-Tatar period have more power. Southern boundary of the ancient settlement determined by recording it in the northern part of the trench rannemusulmanskomu burial. By assumption, AK Khalikova associated with a burial cemetery, which is located outside the already Bulgarian settlements. Other Muslim burial was found in the southern part of the trench for the moat period Kazan Khanate. This, according to N.F.Kalinina, due to the transfer of the cemetery as a result of expansion of the fortress in the XVI century. Human remains were also found in the building, burned down in a fire in 1552
     Work in 1947 is not limited to the above observations. Studies were conducted on the drive at the north gate Sheinkman Cadet schools and in the trench in the yard on the other hand the school gate. Studies in the courtyard of the military carried out in a trench 100 m long, extending from its northern gate under the foundation of the fortress wall. In 1948, observations were made in the garden of the Governor's Palace at the monument to Lenin [16]. In the course of confirmed observations of 1928-1929.: There were no layers of XVI-XVIII centuries., Hidden in the middle of the XIX century. In IV Bulgarian Tatar 45-55 cm layer capacity allocated three horizons. In 1949, observations were made in the trench at the Spasskaya Tower and economic well in the northwestern part of the Kremlin. At the base of the cultural layer west of the Spasskaya Tower was discovered Muslim burial, referring most likely to the cemetery, a study in 1947 in the courtyard of the Ministry of Agriculture [18]. Here, the tower, the remains were identified ditch Russian time.
     Work carried out in 1953, two excavation total area of 176 square meters. m, laid down the slope to Tainitski tower. Excavation on the east side Tainitsky descent 60 m from the tower Syuyumbike gave little or no results, since there were no cultural layers [20-24].
     Unique object of excavations in 1953 and 1954. Located on the west side Tainitski towers are the remains of wooden construction of the first half of the XVI century. No less interesting were the studies in 1954 in the legendary Tainitski tower. Studies have established that strewn passage marked yet Kanitz, was the descent to the bottom slots loopholes, built in the second half of the XVI century. Thus, it was revealed the absence of the underground passage in this part Tainitski tower, although the question of his search elsewhere to this day is still relevant. The excavations at the southern wall of the tower stratigraphically managed to link it with the early Russian construction time [21-24; 29; 84].
     Speaking of postwar studies N.F.Kalinina should briefly on his observations conducted on the territory of Kazan outside the Kremlin. [8] In 1947, 1951. from observations on the street. Kirov and Garage was localized known from written sources in the XVI. Kuraisheva settlement and its cemetery lined location. Studies in 1950 were able to identify a Muslim cemetery in XVI. on the area of Lobachevsky. Observations made in 1949 on the street. Kalinina, confirmed the assumption N.F.Vysotskogo B.V.Millera and availability here Armenian cemetery XV-XVI centuries.
     In addition to studies of medieval monuments N.F.Kalinin involvement of a A.H.Halikova the late 1940s also paid great attention to the identification and study of ancient monuments in the city for the formulation of an archaeological map of Tatarstan [83]. In total they have been localized location for more than 40 archaeological sites, as well as about 20 excavations conducted on these monuments on the area of more than 3 thousand square meters. m most thoroughly studied them monuments (Bakaldinskie, Pobedilovskie, Zaymeschinskie, Kukushkinskie, observatory parking lot) [97]. Thanks to this research has been allocated A.H.Halikovym Prikazanskaya archaeological culture of the Bronze Age. [97]
     During this period, is working hard to establish the location of the ancient Kazan. In 1951, excavations were held at Bishop's summer residence, in 1948-50 years. - 3ilantovoy on Mount [3 16; 29; 31; 32]. By assumption N.F.Kalinina based on historical legends and some objective data, these monuments may be the original place themselves Kazan, which existed at the beginning of the XIII century. before its final transfer to the modern Kremlin hill. Archaeological exploration confirmed the probability of the existence of a small settlement with weak signs of fortifications in northern, elevated part of the Bishop's garden. Cemetery with tombstones could be located on the south, the lower court. Was marked by weak saturated finds pozdnebolgarsky cultural layer. N.F.Kalinin accepted the remains of a fortified settlement in the feudal castle of XIII-XIV centuries., Is perhaps the "prince's residence, which belonged to the principality Kabansky" agree with what some modern scholars [32; 115].
     At Mount Zilantova N.F.Kalinin found just a few fragments pozdnebolgarskoy (?) Ceramic chip and white tile with blue glaze. [6] Name of the mountain, followed by previous investigators, he connected with the Tatar legends about the habitat for many snakes and a winged serpent Zilant on the future site of Kazan [7].
     Fruitful excavations N.F.Kalinina 1950 completed the second stage in the history of archaeological study of Kazan. In general, from 1923 to 1954 only in the territory of the Kazan Kremlin N.F.Kalininym was investigated 415 m. m area, and in general of Kazan has been studied about 5 thousand sq.m.
     The third stage covers the period from the 1960s to the beginning of the 1990s. It is associated with the activities carried out under the supervision of A.H.Halikova. Archaeological research materials become the main source of new information about the history of Kazan. Excavations begin conducted throughout the city. Made numerous observations. During this period was organized archaeological work at more than 50 sites, 41 of them in the Kremlin. Excavations have been opened more than 2 thousand square meters. m In the study also participated: LS Shavokhina, AG Muhamadiev etc.
     Archaeological observation 1962-1970-ies A.H.Halikovym conducted in different parts of the city. Surveys were conducted and earlier monuments. During these years, interesting discoveries have been made in and around the city. In 1961-1967 years. on the right bank r.Kazanki were found near the village Savinovo found several sites of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Of the same nature remains were found in the area and the water station "Locomotive". In 1963, on the high left bank r.Kazanki AHHalikov opened two settlements (and I Kazanka Kazanka P) studied in 1966 PN Starostin. In subsequent years, in the area of settlement Kazanka I found fragments of Bulgar yellow and red ceramics with glossing and localized Bulgarian selishte.
     Studies in the historic center of the city were mostly sporadic, sporadic. In 1962 in the Kremlin at the construction site for building cafes Ministry of Culture of Tatarstan were found the remains of Muslim graves, possibly pre-Mongol period, traces of which still earlier, in 1947, gave N.F.Kalinin.
     Observations 1964-1965. in the trench, laid on the street. Lenin (now st. Kremlin), revealed cultural strata and materials XV-XVI centuries .. Similar results, incidentally, were also obtained in our study in 1996, conducted in the same area. In 1962-1968 years. on-site demolition of the old building on the corner of the circus. Chernoozersky Chernyshevsky and some materials (mainly fragments of ceramic ware) XIV-XV centuries. Fragments of the yellow and red Bulgarian ceramics glossing were found in the area of settlement Kazanka I.
     During the 1968-1970 years of observations at the construction site of the new building fizkorpusa KSU A.H.Halikov recorded traces of depressions interpreted them as possible residues suburban XVI in the ditch.
     In 1971-1978 years. A.H.Halikova conducted under the direction of large-scale studies in the Kremlin and in the vicinity of Kazan. In the implementation of these excavations and actively participated L.S.Shavohin A.G.Muhamadiev. The studies were aimed at addressing contentious issues related to the definition of the founding and initial localization of Kazan.
     In 1971-1973. L.S.Shavohin conducted searches of the original space of the city, on which "claimed", in addition to the Kazan Kremlin, a settlement on Zilantova mountain Kaban settlement and Old fort (Fedorov mound?). At Mount Zilantova four excavation investigated area of 100 square meters. m; on Kaban settlement pits 8 - 32 m. m;Old fort on the pits 6 - 24 m. m excavation was not given, evidence supporting the pre-Russian population of these places.
     During these years, intensively studied the Kazan Kremlin, which was laid down 8 digs a total area of 226 square meters. m Research conducted mainly L.S.Shavohinym in the northeastern part of the Kremlin hill.
     Excavation I 1971 (28 sq. m.) located at the north-eastern wall of the Kremlin. It observed cultural strata capacity of up to 4 m lower horizon the revealed material was dated period Kazan Khanate. At the level of the continent in a layer of gray-brown sandy loam were found pieces of copper slag.
     Excavation 2 and 3 (12 sq. m.) were laid in the northern top of the Kremlin hill. They revealed cultural deposits ranging from 3.5 to 4 m, formed, according L.S.Shavohina, during the construction of the Governor's Palace in the 1840s. In these excavations because of the strong layers of redesigned identified only one of the buildings failed to link stratigraphically and the nature of the detected material with the period of the Kazan Khanate. Interesting results were obtained in the excavation 4 (20 sq. m.), Which was founded in the south-eastern part of the palace garden. In it, according to unpublished works and A.H.Halikova L.S.Shavohina possible to isolate areas of pre-Mongol layer, which is associated with the remains of residential buildings.
     In 1972, research conducted by three of the excavation area of 148 square meters. m in the north-eastern lowlands of the Kremlin. 1 In the excavation, to the south tower of the Resurrection, the Bulgarian-Tatar layers have not been identified. Their absence A.H.Halikov explained later settling this part of the Kremlin, although research F.Sh.Huzina the 1995-1996. have shown the presence of the tower itself even here the Golden materials.
     Works in excavation 2, laid in the same area, possible to trace the layers of dense dark brown sandy loam with inclusions of chips, humus and fragments of leather shoes, laid in the middle of XV-XVI centuries. These observations are similar to the materials obtained from this area in the 1995-1996 excavations F.Sh.Huzina. 3 excavation was located in the lower part of the Kremlin Palace garden fence, but because of the proximity of groundwater at 5.5 m was not to get to the mainland. At this depth, were found the remains of a bridge dating back to the period of the Khanate of Kazan.
     Smaller excavation (50 sq. m.) research continued in 1973 in the north-east, the lower part of the Kremlin hill, where the layers were identified period of the Khanate of Kazan. Noteworthy in this excavation pit sampling traces foundation walls, destroyed in the XVII century.
     Parallel observations were made for the construction works on the territory of Kazan. In 1971 I Oncology Center at the Kremlin were marked powerful (up to 7 m) cultural deposits grist deepening ravine. The following year, 1972, when observing the construction of a new school building number 33 on the street. Krasin were identified layers XV-XVI centuries. The same result was obtained in the vicinity of the building humanities departments at KSU. This information is specified representation of the territory of the khan of Kazan.
     Significant achievement in the study at this stage, Kazan became the localization of the most ancient part of it. During these investigations were finally refuted assumptions about settling Bulgars Zilantova mountains Kabansky fort, old fort (Fedorovsk tuber).
     In 1974-1978. research on the territory of the Kremlin hill even more active. Based on a thorough analysis of the written and oldest archaeological materials N.F.Kalinina A.H.Halikov admitted the possibility of settling its pre-Mongol period.
     In 1974 excavation was laid 1 (158 sq. m.) in the central part of the square in front of the Council of Ministers of Tatarstan . As in previous years, studies, profiles of the excavation layers XVII-XVIII centuries. not traced. Stratigraphically identified three layers of Bulgarian Tatar time. The first of these power 0.3m dated material identified by the complex period of the Khanate of Kazan, the next layer - the second half of XIII - first half of the XV century. Lower stratum was a pre-Mongol and consisted of a layer of gray-brown soil thickness of 3-10 cm It is observed only at those areas where the buried soil preserved in the form of a dense gray sandy loam to 20 cm thick As described by researchers, pre-Mongol layer was a top , redesigned part of buried soil.
     Studies in the square in front of the Annunciation Cathedral began in 1975 It was first obtained relatively complete section of the cultural layers. Stratigraphically their allocated five: I layer - XX-XIX centuries., II layer - the second half of the XVI-XVIII centuries., III layer - the second half of the XV-XVI in the first half., IV layer - the second third of the XIII-XV in the first half ., V layer - the last quarter of the first third of the XII-XIII century. Mode of occurrence of pre-Mongol layer of the excavation was identical to a similar layer of the excavation in 1974 this ancient layer was associated wooden building and three economic pit.
     Studies on the area of the square in front of Cathedral of the Annunciation were continued in 1977 Excavation V (48 sq. m.) was defeated What's on the lawn parallel Sheinkman in the southwestern part of the park. It revealed part Tezitsky moat and remnants of a wooden bridge. The depth of the ditch was 5.5 m and a width of 10-15 m
     To strengthen the pre-Mongol were first discovered in excavation I A.H.Halikovym 1978 (200 sq. m.), laid on the west side of the square. In the excavation got rampart mound with stone fortifications and part of pass-gates, which, according to the researchers, dated to the second half of the XII century. To create a more complete picture of the direction of strengthening had a number of pits. It revealed the remains of the mound shaft in a westerly direction to the Junker School. Continuation of fortifications on the east side then not been traced. New information about ancient fortifications on the territory of the square were obtained in the course of work, 1995-1999.
     Were more extensive research in the area of the tower and Syuyumbike Vvedenskoj church. In 1975, the south side of the Presentation of the church, which has historically been linked with the remains of the mosque Nur-Ali, L.S.Shavohinym pit was laid to establish the time of laying its foundation. During the studies the assumption of pre-Russian N.F.Kalinina time of its construction was not confirmed.
     Excavation I 1976-1977 gg. area of 176 square meters. m located on the south side of the tower Syuyumbike. There have been recorded, according to the authors of the excavation and L.S.Shavohina A.G.Muhamadieva, remnants of the original fortifications of the city in the form of an earthen mound 3 m wide These fortifications A.H.Halikov considered one-off with the remnants of the shaft, which was discovered in the excavation on the territory of the park on the south side of the Annunciation Cathedral. 1977 Works carried two excavation laid down on the west side of the tower Syuyumbike. Excavation 3 (86 sq. m.) Was defeated through sanitary sewer pipes. It was discovered 80 burials Russian time, but apart from them were recorded and earlier layers, as well as three household pits pre-Mongol period.
     Sensational results of the excavation began in April 1977 an area of 120 square meters. m It was founded close to the fence between the church and the tower Vvedenskoj Syuyumbike. Here A.H.Halikovym were opened poorly preserved stone buildings of Kazan Khanate period, the era of the Golden Horde and the pre-Mongol period. With the pre-Mongol layer were related remnants of two stone buildings, probably watchtower minaret mosque. A.H.Halikov was inclined to see in this tower prototype of the modern tower Syuyumbike. Based on stratigraphic observations, early buildings were destroyed during the Khanate of Kazan and in their place were built mausoleums. In examining the mausoleums were cleared five heavily disturbed Muslim graves consisting of four adults and one child skeleton. Based on the results of anthropological and historical and archaeological research, two adult skeleton F.Sh.Huzin identified as the remains of Mahmud Khan (d. 60s XV.) And Muhammad Amin (d. 1518).
     At the same A.H.Halikovym L.S.Shavohinym years and conducted research on the fortress walls and towers of the Kremlin. For this purpose, was laid two excavation pits and 11. Archaeologists concluded that the stone walls of the Kremlin were built by Russian masters after 1552
     Thus archaeological research 1974-1979. under the leadership of A.H.Halikova unable to determine the time of occurrence of the first Bulgarian settlements in Kazan. Was developed stratigraphic scale cultural layer, which took its place, and the pre-Mongol layer XII-XIII centuries. Over this period of time was laid 20 digs and 36 pits with a total area of about 1600 square meters. m Among the major achievements of the expedition should be called the study of residues landmarks Bulgarian Tatar time. Unfortunately, successfully started operation after 1979 were suspended.
     Studies 1979-1993. limited excavation and irregular observations on the territory of Kazan. In 1982 A.H.Halikov made observations at the building fizkorpusa KSU, where it was possible to fix, as he believed the remains of the rampart XV-XVI centuries. width up to 20 m outside this line study of cultural layers was conducted on the street. Lobachevsky, east of Black Lake on the street. Karl Marx, Boris Red, Mislavskiy and in the Kazan University. Layers of pre-Russian Kazan here have been identified, which, according to the researchers, this suggests about the development of the territory after 1552 In the same year, work was carried out in the Central Market Street. M. Mezhlauk where Muslim burials were found, which rightly aligned with the cemetery Kuraishevoy settlement.
     In 1985 observations were made on Fedorovskoye knoll near the construction site of the Lenin Memorial (now NCC "Kazan"). Carefully studied stratigraphy layers in the trenches longer than 300 m Observations finally convinced A.H.Halikova here in the absence of any trace historically known and usually here localizable "old fort."
     In the same year, studies on the territory of the Kazan Mother of God Monastery ( 500 m east of the Kremlin), where he was laid hole (3 x 3 m) between the modern building of the Faculty of Russian Philology KSPU and tobacco factories. In cultural stratifications capacity up to 75-80 cm stratigraphically been allocated four layers. The bottom layer consists of light brown sandy loam, with a capacity of 5-10 cm was close to the Golden Horde in the sediment layer IV of the Kazan Kremlin.
     Significant area excavations were undertaken in 1988 in connection with the project work on the construction of the Kazan metro. To this end, at the intersection of ul. Bauman and the Kremlin was laid three excavation (172 sq. m.). Stratigraphic excavations traced in all four layers, the bottom of which was dated XIII-XIV centuries. 1 In the excavation at the House of Political Education (now the Presidium of the ANT) were found the remains of wooden structures, presumably interpreted as traces A.H.Halikovym Posad wall XIV-XV and XV-XVI centuries. Two construction period of the Kazan Khanate were leather workshops with lots of fragments of leather shoes.
     Descending from May 1 Square located excavation 3. At the bottom, the fourth layer revealed traces of burial pits. "Stratigraphy abundance and availability grobovischa that is characteristic mainly for Muslim-Bulgarian burials pre-Mongol period, suggests that before us the remains of the ancient (XII-XIII cc.) Burial. Co layer is also connected to 20 fragments typically Bulgar ceramics with a wide banded glossing, more typical for the pre-Mongol (XII-XIII cc.) Volga Bulgar time. This is an interesting statement A.H.Halikova, in our opinion, needs to be tested by new excavations.
     A.H.Halikova According to the concept, generated on the basis of new materials, the earliest fortified settlement (settlement 1) appeared in the XII century. (1177) in the north-western tip of the Kremlin hill. From the west, north and north-east area of the settlement area of about 4 hectares limited by steep slopes, and on the south side - artificial rampart and ditch (Tezitsky ravine). A little later, the original city - Kazan fortress - was further strengthened with white stone walls. Traces of pre-Mongol period cemeteries have been identified in the area of the Consistory of the tower.
     Kazan Duchy Capital XIV - first half of the XV century. archaeologically represented, according A.H.Halikova, mound II, occupies the northern part of the Kremlin hill with a total area of 10 hectares. Remains of a Muslim cemetery this time known from observations in 1947 in the southeastern part of the Kremlin. This fortress while still belonged major suburbs.
     Kazan fortress 1445-1552 gg., fenced, he believed A.H.Halikov, oak walls (fort III), took about 3/4 of the area of present-day Kremlin. On the south side adjoin the cemetery burials in Lahte-red lining (see observation 1949); him began Posad, fortified in 1530, if not earlier, and comes to modern st. Lobachevsky and the University, and to the west - to Bulak. Next located around the fortified village and the village.
     Significant results were achieved in the period under consideration in the study of historical and social topography of the city, its territorial development in the Middle Ages, based on the analysis of written sources. In the writings of historians Kazan bit by bit to restore the lost image of the city and the Kremlin. Attempts were made to reconstruction architecture khan of Kazan. Extensive historiography added a question about the time of construction and cultural affiliation tower Syuyumbeki.
     Thus, as a result of long-term observations and archaeological excavations conducted on the territory of the Kazan Kremlin and beyond, since the second half of XIX century. until the end of the 80-ies of the last century, were made notable advances in the study of the historical topography of the city, in determining the place of its occurrence and approximate boundaries in the XII-XVI centuries. One of the major achievements of the previous years of archaeological work can be regarded as laying the foundations of stratigraphy and chronology of cultural deposits medieval Kazan.
     Fourth, modern, stage begins in 1994 Basic research in the beginning of this phase were concentrated in the Kazan Kremlin. Their renewal was associated with the creation of the State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve "Kazan Kremlin", which embarked on a planned restoration work. Their conduct was accompanied by archaeological excavations under the direction and A.H.Halikova F.Sh.Huzina implemented mainly security and rescue purposes. Large-scale and complex investigations gave results of archaeological research value of independent and objective source on the ancient history of Kazan. In a short span of time was spent on research about 200 objects, including more than 60 in the Kremlin. Research excavations were about 20 thousand square meters.
     Thanks to the research was found about 80 archaeological sites in the city. Established zones of archaeological cultural layer. A system of security and rescue archaeological research on the construction sites.
     Main task was defined conduct systematic and large-scale archaeological excavations in the Kremlin and in the historic city. The program was developed by archaeological research in the next ten years, published in 1995 in the form of a brochure. In this work it has been allocated a few basic, the most promising and priorities. One of them was related to the update time of the city of Kazan. The priorities also pointed to the need to study the dynamics of territorial development of the city and its fortifications in different historical periods, which has practical value in dealing with the reconstruction of the ancient landscape of the city. Studying the dynamics of growth historic district obliged also consider localization ancient necropolis of Kazan and the historically famous landmarks. The program highlighted the need to identify and study the architectural structures of the Kazan Khanate period. It was assumed, in particular, to study thoroughly all remaining buildings XVI-XVIII centuries. for verifying the time of their construction and the possible detection of traces of earlier architecture; at the same time continue the search for a ruined remains of stone, brick and wooden buildings of various functionalities that existed in the XI-XVI centuries. In this issue alone stood out early Russian Kazan time, given that she kept for a long time as a second city after Moscow in the Russian state and played a key role in its development. To date, many of the provisions of this program implemented. Unfortunately, a huge archaeological material accumulated over the years is not introduced into scientific circulation.
     In terms of implementation of the program from 1994 to 2004 in the Kremlin was laid 26 digs with a total area of about 10,000 square meters and held dozens of observations of the excavation works, which resulted in important materials were obtained in the study of ancient Kazan.
     Materials were obtained pre-Mongol period in the early years of research on the territory of the Gun Court, where excavations have been laid and I XVI. Their total area was 510 m. m of cultural deposits both digs pretty clearly defined stratigraphic full picture of the Kremlin, showing continuity of accumulation layers, starting with the pre-Mongol period up to the present. Considerable amount has been learned structures XII-XVII centuries., Including household pits and the remains of pre-Mongolian street pavement and later time, dwelling era Kazan Khanate and other objects. One of the unique, but, unfortunately, poorly preserved objects turned brick-stone structure khanate period - the first half of the XVI century.
     The Kremlin Annunciation Cathedral south studied in 1994-1997. Excavation II-III total area of 797 square meters. These studies further confirmed the validity of the pre-Mongol isolation layer and gave considerable material for studying the history of the Kremlin and the city early XI-XVI centuries. II in Excavation revealed the remains of ancient fortifications of the city as a rampart, to cast the latest milestone X-XI centuries. This date was confirmed by the results of radiocarbon analysis. On the site of the excavation adjacent to the northern slope Tezitsky moat cleared remains of a large stone building khanate period. Under the foundation of another building in the XVI. Completely disassembled in the XIX century. Were discovered two ancient treasure coins second half of XV - the first half of the XVI century.
     In order to study the early fortifications of the Kremlin in the same area, west of excavations II-III, in 1998, was laid excavation XX, found the remains of the white stone structures, presumably related to travel and pre-Mongol Golden gate time. Traces of a stone wall adjacent to these gates were locked A.H.Halikovym in 1978.
     Studies on fortification of the Kremlin there were in 1995 (excavation V), 1997-2000 gg. (Excavations X, XV, XVIII, XIX, XXXIII), when the eastern slope of the hill area of about 1000 square meters were discovered the remains of the white stone walls, which functioned from the XII to the XVI century.
     In connection with landscaping the yard of the mosque in 2001 there was a partial truncation of soil within the basement of the arena Junker School. The result is a more stratigraphic observations in this part of the Kremlin. Finally managed to locate the western part of the ancient fortifications and clarify the initial area of the city reaches a size of more than 6 hectares.
     Interesting material for the study of the topography of the ancient Kremlin has been gained in research area located east of the Annunciation Cathedral. In the excavation IX, in particular, were recorded traces streets of the late pre-Mongol period and referred to in the Scribe book 1565-1568 gg. Unique finding of the oldest layer of the excavation is a Czech coin in X. Excavation XI, laid in the apses the Annunciation Cathedral, clearly identified construction horizon of an Orthodox church, which rested on a layer of a conflagration in 1552
     Outside the ancient walls of the original Kazan Kremlin in the eastern part of the hill, at the foot of the slope, located excavations IV and XIII. The first of them adjoining the Resurrection tower gave materials previously Golden time, but the so-called "layer Khan" was full of objects of economic purpose. Extremely interesting was the excavation XIII, in which the pre-Mongolian layer chip found in the Arabic dirham X. and studied the remains of dwellings, stratigraphically dated XI-XII centuries. In addition, this excavation is well preserved wooden structures (including master tanner), located on both sides of the street with a wooden bridge.
     During excavations VI, VII, XVII at the construction site of a new mosque Kul-Sharif, as well as excavation VIII near the former Transfiguration Cathedral was unable to identify the layers before the mid XV., Although there were also earlier findings. These observations, important for the historical reconstruction of the Kremlin, were installed approximate border dissemination of the cultural layer pre-Mongol period.
     Special interest for the study of medieval fortification materials are obtained A.M.Gubaydullinym, P.N.Starostinym and N.G.Nabiullinym and F.Sh.Huzinym during excavations in 2000-2003. North, Northeast, Pentagonal, Tainitski Kremlin towers. There are certain grounds to speak about Khan's time (first half of the XVI century.) Construction of the North Tower. Attracted the attention of material obtained from P.N.Starostinym Northeast tower where were found the remains of smelting hearth era Kazan Khanate.
     Studies were also conducted to examine the currently existing stone walls of the Kremlin. The total area of the excavations laid along its walls in 2003 was about 1200 m. m In some areas were able to establish the stages of building walls. Thus, the construction horizon associated with the construction of the northern fence of the Kremlin (between the Secret and Resurrection Gate), stratigraphically lower strata refers to the layer formed during the second half of the XVI century. According to observations in the pits in 1996 at the walls of the western fence beneath the foundations of the former barracks Junker School has been suggested that they erected the first time half of the XVI century. However, observations of the course of 2001 laying stormwater from punching walls showed that the masonry walls here to the full depth shifted during the construction of the barracks. Unfortunately, most sites cultural strata adjacent to the stone wall, almost completely destroyed by later Perekopa.
     In the autumn of 2003 archaeological investigations were carried out along the fence of the North between the tower and the Secret Gate. Stratigraphically the construction of a stone wall on the northern slope refers to the line XV-XVI centuries. Although early masonry not preserved throughout. Overall length preserved masonry first half of the XVI century. It is about 30 m recorded at a depth of 30-40 cm from the present surface. On the edge of the Kremlin hill, north of modern walls noted earlier remnants of stone walls in the XII. They are a continuation of the stone walls found on the eastern slope.
     The territory of residence of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan has been studied intensively before the excavations of the 1990s. Extensive work in this area were carried out by an archaeological expedition "Kazan Kremlin" in 1997-2001. In a short span was laid a series of excavations a total area of over 3,000 square meters.
     Here were discovered the foundations of two large stone buildings on the south side of the Presidential Palace. One of the objects in the excavations at the tower Syuyumbeki XLI is poorly preserved remains of brick and stone building, consisting of two parts - the white stone and brick. Construction has dimensions of 14 x 30 m, oriented along the line SSW (207 az. 0) stratigraphic time of the erection of the building refers to the layer of the Kazan Khanate. The destruction of buildings and filling cellars dating back to the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries. Such orientation of buildings in our region is typical for Muslim places of worship. It is possible that it represents the remains of Khan Mosque. According to the Scribe book it can be identified with localized mosque here in the royal court.
     Another major object of the khanate period was observed and studied in the central part of the courtyard residence of the President of Tajikistan. It represents the remains of the basement of the white stone building measuring 18 x 24 m, oriented to the cardinal. Construction was allegedly broken at the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries, it partially destroys the foundation of the building of Bishops Court, built at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries. According to the plans of the Kremlin can say that modern building in the center of the presidential residence RT disappears at the beginning of the XVIII century. Detected object, given its size, location and map data, is comparable to the Khan's palace, entrance to the complex "Tsarev court" Scribe books under the name of the Grand Chamber.
     In the excavation XXXIV on the west side of the Annunciation Cathedral trace a certain layout. Buildings are arranged in two rows along the undeveloped strip (205-210O az.) 200-250 cm wide with traces of wooden paving associated presumably with the remnants of a small alley. It is important to note that the orientation of the identified objects consistent with the regional azimuth of Mecca. Such a development may be due to the binding of buildings near Moslem religious buildings do not fall into the excavation, considering that next to the excavation in front of the north aisle of the Cathedral of the Annunciation to the Scribe book 1565-1568 gg. a mosque.
     During excavations in 1999 outside the Kremlin, about 200 m east of Demetrius tower on the street. Baturina S.I.Valiullinoy were discovered traces of handicraft tenements, in the pre-Mongolian layer which recorded clear signs of metallurgical production in the form of a cluster of iron slag.
     Archaeological research in the Kremlin has its own specifics. The Kremlin is the center of a dynamic and modern city under construction. This fact puts forward as a priority the implementation of security and rescue operations in order to maximize cultural study erodible layer. Difficulty in carrying out the excavations give birth later Perekopa Choose existing communications systems. On some excavations destruction of cultural layer later Perekopa reach more than 50%; preservation of pre-Mongol V layer is not more than 10-15%. Overcome these difficulties is possible only with careful observation and observance of all methodological requirements in field studies.
     The results achieved in the field of archeology of medieval Kazan, are the result of the efforts of a large team of scientists from different disciplines. Using the entire set of mutually complementary sources made it possible to extract the maximum information from the cultural layers of the Kazan Kremlin and historical part of the city, improve the accuracy of the reconstruction of historical facts and objects.
     Substantial material on the archeology of Kazan was obtained in studies outside the Kazan Kremlin. Orientation of works determined, as mentioned already above, in the framework of the study of the city of Kazan. Excavations in the city began in 1998, although this observation and to the construction work carried out on the streets permanently. In general, up to 2004 was conducted excavations on the area of about 1200 square meters and observations - more than 15,000 square meters.
     Conducting archaeological work in modern dynamic city is complicated by a large built-on area and considerable destruction of the cultural layer. In some cases, the difficulties in the study of ancient strata explained excavation with complete destruction of the layer in the historic center without involving archaeologists, which leads to irreversible loss of valuable information about the history of Kazan. Over the centuries archeologists carried fixation features cultural deposits on the territory of the city at various earthworks. Generalization of the accumulated material to evaluate the scientific significance of the information collected to identify possible areas of further research and determine the nature of the security and rescue studies in the city.
     Archaeological excavations in the territory of the late 1990s were aimed at identifying the earlier settlements outside the Kremlin. To this end, the excavations were carried out in 1998 on Mount Zilantova, Kaban settlement, the old fort (Virgin Monastery). As a result, research on any of the above sites were not detected pre-Mongolian ancient bedding layer Kazan Kremlin. The earliest dated materials on Kaban settlement in XIII., And managed to find Zilantova mountain layers formed after the second half of the XVI century. Finds pre-Mongol period were unexpectedly found AA Tchizhevskiy on newly identified monument - Airfield selishte in river bed. Kazanki, but subsequent studies EP Kazakova have not yet confirmed the presence there of early material.
     During the excavation in 1999, approximately 200 m east of the tower at St. Demetrius. Fedoseevskaya S.I.Valiulinoy were discovered traces of handicraft tenements, in the pre-Mongolian layer which recorded clear signs of metallurgical production in the form of a cluster of iron slag. Material from the pre-Mongol layer was recorded in excavations on the west side of the Kremlin, although not in all areas.
     Extensive research has been conducted in the city of Kazan in the form of observations of construction works in the historic center. Considerable material was collected during the survey on the area of the Kremlin hill, earned in the era of the Khanate of Kazan. Since studies in the reconstruction of the Faculty of Geology at KSU have allowed to detect objects and bedding khan of Kazan, although layer largely destroyed in later periods. Building currently occupied by the Geological KSU are buildings of the former Kazan Theological Seminary, which originates from the first half of the XVIII century. Must be noted that the studied area was part of the medieval tenements Kazan XV. Among the objects which daily level rests on the mainland, it may be noted burial. It was revealed when stripping profile in the northern part of the trench on the street. Kremlin. Stratigraphic observations and written sources were unable to determine the time of burial. The area recorded remnants of a Muslim cemetery, traces of which were discovered during observations 1962-1963 and 1983. Perhaps this is due to burying them.
     On a hill in the Kremlin in 2000, observations were made at the construction site of the building of the Ministry of Justice. Stratigraphic description was similar to the characteristics of the cultural layers Faculty of Geology at KSU. But the scarcity of material and specific observations makes it impossible to give a definite answer about the chronological framework of accumulation of strata.
     In summer 2000, on construction sites in the center of Kazan archaeological expedition "Kazan Kremlin" series of observations carried out on the street. Bauman, Jalil, Ostrovsky on more than 5.5 thousand square meters. m at a depth of soil cutting up to 7 m from the present surface. When conducting security and rescue tasks related to the establishment of the time of their settlement and the intensity of their development. Bedding Bulgarian Tatar time is not fixed. As a result, studies have revealed the remains of dwellings and outbuildings, which functioned in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. At the intersection of ul. Ostrovsky and Jalil found the remains of the Christian necropolis of XVII-XVIII centuries.
     Observations were also conducted on the east side of the Kremlin hill. Cultural layer on the whole territory described dated periods later than the second half of the XVI century. To identify the material during its operation can be compared with the period of accumulation layer II of the Kazan Kremlin (the second half of the XVI-XVIII centuries.).
     Observations were carried out in recent years and on the left bank of river. Bulak. Fixing the cultural layers held in 1998 in the pit building and entertainment center "Pyramid", where it was possible to select objects and layers, the first half of the XVI century. Possibly related Kuraishevoy Sloboda. Such material was obtained in the course of research on the area south of the intersection. Tukaya and Mezhlauk.
     To a large extent the organization of security and rescue archaeological research in the city have changed with the creation in 2001 of the archaeological supervision of the Office of the State Control protection and use of historical and cultural monuments of Kazan. After the formation of the department have been made a number of organizational activities, organize the implementation of excavation in the area of the restrictions under the terms of protection of the cultural layer, which allowed for more efficient work for the security research.
     In 2001 archaeological expeditions Kazan studies were conducted in small pits throughout the complex Marjani mosque. The studies have provided important information on the nature of the cultural layer of sediments and topography in the area. Cultural strata were identified and a number of objects related to development of the area after the second half of the XVI century.
     On the territory of the Geological Department of the Kazan State University security work carried out during excavations for laying communications and pits dug for the foundations, and the Teachers in LUKINSKY yards. Unable to locate the location of the cemetery of the second half XVII-XVIII centuries beginning. Discovered during excavation at the site of the foundation of the building dismantled between the bell tower and Paul Cathedral and the Faculty of Geology Teachers' yard. Here, as a result of the collapse of the walls of the pit were found the remains of burials in oak decks.
     In 2001-2002. on the territory of the Kazan University conducted security and rescue operations in connection with the threat of destruction of the cultural layer of medieval Kazan in the construction process. Earliest development of the study area belongs to the late Palaeolithic or Mesolithic. Found mammoth bones, flint flakes, possibly gun related, according M.Sh.Galimovoy to the specified time.
     As a result, studies were able to get the evidence of pre-Russian (Bulgar-Tatar) time development of this part of town. Glove material suggests that perhaps unfortified Posad (suburb) medieval Kazan by the XII-XIII centuries. reached the southern tip of the Kremlin hill, as evidenced by the numerous finds obschebolgarskoy krasnoglinyanoy ceramics in excavation. Unfortunately, the pre-Mongol layer is not detected, it is obviously all redesigned in later life of the city. Isolated findings presented the Golden period of development of the area. Of interest Jochid coin XIV. Chip and celadon bowls from China. Well preserved layers accumulated during the second half of XVI-XVIII centuries. Cleared from numerous pits columns, traces depressions associated presumably with the fence area households. By the time of the early Russian include cultivation shovels, fixed on podzol. With later stages of development of the territory correspond-pit excavations basement with drevyannymi srubs. All objects are stretched in one direction, repeating the line previously existed here Dubasova street. Unfortunately, the excavation revealed only the back side of the yard built the territory.
     * * *
     Work in Kazan gave additional information on the location of the oldest objects. Studied the remains of the original fortifications of the city - the rampart mound abroad X-XI centuries. Provided interesting information about the process of development of its territory. At the same time were replenished our understanding of the nature and power of the cultural layers of different periods in the historical center of the city. Overall, the accumulated material makes it possible to reconstruct the emergence and further development of Kazan from the small Bulgarian fortress in a dynamic modern city.
     Thus, a significant source base for versatile and more in-depth study of the past of our capital. Bicentennial accumulation period archaeological material allowed to submit a new story of one of the largest and most important cities in Russia. Comprehend his early Bulgarian-Tatar periods of development. As a result of archaeological research has accumulated a wealth of factual material that has not properly processed and published. Continued further study of the history of the city largely requires not only conducting archaeological research, but more intensive study of the accumulated material.

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