ya_palomnik Annunciation Cathedral complex

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Annunciation Cathedral complex

Annunciation Cathedral complex

     Annunciation Cathedral complex is located in the northeastern part of the Kremlin gradually formed from the XVI century. as the center of Orthodox edge control. The complex consists of the Annunciation Cathedral, Bishop's House, the Consistory, as well as archaeological fragments of stone buildings of different periods.

     Cathedral of the Annunciation

     Annunciation Cathedral - the largest building of the Kazan Kremlin and the oldest surviving stone buildings of Kazan, located in the center of the complex. Built in 1561-1562 years. Pskov masters headed Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Shiryaev. Rebuilt in 1691, 1736, 1835-1843, renovated in 1970 1980, was restored in 1996-2005.
     Originally it was a five-domed shestistolpny trehapsidny church with two chapels connected porch, which skirted the central cuboid volume cathedral. Cathedral chapter were helmet-shaped.
     Consecration of the cathedral took place in 1562. Cathedral was subjected to numerous repairs and renovations after three fires. In 1694, the narrow window of the Annunciation Cathedral has been expanded, the temple is decorated with wall letter. At the same time, from the south-west side of the porch of the cathedral was erected five-tiered bell tower. In 1736 the helmet side Makovytsya bulbous heads were replaced, and the central head received completion in Ukrainian baroque style.
     In the years 1842-1843. on the west side was attached a new large refectory two tiers of windows, high open porch, transformed in 1863 into a covered porch, arranged furnace heating, air heater replaced then. During construction was found architectural details, possibly associated with buildings khan period that were descriptions scribe 1566-1568 gg. opposite the church in the northern limits. As in 1869-1870. Cathedral was re-painted.
     In the 1930s. demolished tower, west porch, cathedral chapter.
     Was originally built 5-headed, 5-apsidny church surrounded by two side chapels. Central 6-stolpny volume with four side drums with bulbous terminations and one middle drum in the Ukrainian Baroque style, three apses, side chapels with apses, conservation held three internal fragments of frescoes in the main space and the fragments in the apse of the altar. A number of the decorative elements, one of which - the XVI century Tatar tombstone. Incorporated in the masonry lintel over a niche for church utensils. Milk fat were restored paintings, executed in the early XIX century. Safonov family brigade painters Vladimirovskaya school. Fully recreated tyablovy iconostasis for the beginning of the XVII century. Decorated with gold leaf gilding basmoj. Also recreated carved canopy over the shrine with the relics of St.. Guria, 4 kiot with icons in the dining room and 2 in the vestibule of the main entrance. Restored two limits - North and South, with paintings and iconostasis. In the bulk of the ground floor there is a XVI century, which originally functioned as a separate shestistolpny church of All Saints. Wall and groin that room lined blocks of hewn limestone. At the moment, it adapts to the Museum of Orthodox art.
     In the forms and structures clearly shows the influence of Pskov, Vladimir, Moscow and Ukrainian architecture. Cathedral - a unique monument of XVI-XIX century.
     The central volume of the cathedral is built of white stone, has retained its original three-dimensional composition - trehapsidny, shestistolpny, with five chapters. Internal pillars in the temple round as in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin; instead of sailing to the main dome transitions used Tromp - reception inherent eastern architecture unique to the construction of the temple at that time. In decorating facades patterned bands ("slider" brick on edge) connected to arkaturoy. Walls have keeled pozakomarnye completion and coverage. Central head baroque pear shaped, gold-plated; side of head - bulbs, blue, decorated with gilded stars. On the southern and northern sides of the central volume abut two brick chapel with semicircular apses; from the west - a vast double-height refectory. Refectory brick, plastered with pozakomarnym coated facades are decorated with flat pilasters. Temple preserved interiors of the cathedral XVI-XVII centuries. Refectory two tiers of windows, arranged around the perimeter of the choruses with stairs at the western wall. The walls of the temple and the refectory painted with oil paints (paintings of the XIX century.)
     In 1973-1986 years restoration carried out under the leadership of SS Aidarova (project architect R. Gaynullina) restored the head and cover them, made the restoration of the eastern most part of the ancient temple.
     In 1996-2005 restoration works were carried out under the supervision of the architect. Tat. SNRU Raimova RR Kharisova and IB by "Antica". Restoration carried out by Moscow artists painting restorers led by S. Filatov and Kamenev TE

     Bishop's house

     Bishop's house is located on the southeastern side of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, built in 1829 to replace the dismantled palace Kazan bishops XVII. Bishop's house served as the residence of the head of the city of the Orthodox Church of the Kazan region.
     Three storey building, brick, stucco, with a gambrel roof. To rectangular main volume on the east side adjacent to developed three corbels. The whole composition is subject to strict symmetry about the axis of the central projection, which housed the house church. The facades are in the forms of late classicism.
     Input node along the axis of the main facade in the XX century. semicircular decorated canopy in terms of two columns. In the second half of XX century. was built on the third floor. Rusticated ground floor, above the windows with projecting wedge jumper capstone. Second floor window with a modest frame windows with architraves weatherstrip profiled cornices. To be restored with the recovery of the attic above the central part of the main facade and dome tent on the central projection from the east facade.

     Consistory

     Consistory closes complex Annunciation Cathedral on the south side, the south-eastern wing adjacent to the Consistory tower. The building was rebuilt in the XVIII century. of existed here from the XVI century. Bishops stable yard facades rebuilt in the XIX century.
     The building is two-story, brick, consists of several buildings at different times, forming a quadrangle open to the courtyard. The main building is located along the main street of the Kremlin, in line with the government offices buildings. First floor in the most ancient part of it is covered with closed arches and arch cut through travel. The eastern wall of the yard enclosure included the remnants of the fortress walls white-XII-XVIII centuries.
     Facades plastered and decorated window frames in a stylized form of needlework Russian architecture.
     In 1998 he carried out the restoration yard literature.

     Archaeological fragments of stone pavement and bridge XII-XV centuries.

     In 1977-1978, excavations. Laid down in the square near the modern building of the Ministry of Health of RT were studied ancient fortifications of the city - the remains of an earthen embankment and a shaft of white stone walls, the moat in front of them, and traces of other structures - bridgehead construction and stone pavement. Directly from the ditch revealed the remains of a rectangular stone laying length of 400 and 180 cm wide Masonry preserved to a height of 4-series; Armoured she had character. Found near the burned logs and stones disintegrated. This structure represents the remains of the bridge over the moat, functioned in XIII-XV centuries. A stone pavement was laid out then (most likely in the XV-XVI centuries.) When the moat was already completely buried and lost its defensive significance.

     Archaeological fragments of stone buildings XV-XVI centuries.

     One of the relatively large period buildings Kazan Khanate was studied in Excavation II in 1994-1997. It was preserved only at the level of the basement and the basement part of. Masonry walls made of well-crafted stone blocks held together with mortar. Dimensions built 16 x 14 m entrance was located on the east side, where it was revealed entryway. Traces of the building construction horizon traced to completion of the cultural layer of the khanate period. Overlapped on top of the building later stone constructions Russian time, possibly related to the Bishops' home XVI-XVIII centuries.
     Another building synchronous previous preserved only in traces short stacks of wooden piles driven into the stone foundation under the building. The building had a rectangular shape in terms of the size of about 12 x 8 m It was completely demolished in the XVII-XVIII centuries. for the purpose of production of building stone. Building foundations have also been used in the structure of Russian period buildings Bishops Court. Under the north-western and north-eastern corners of his treasures were discovered ancient coins of more than two thousand pieces. The youngest of the coin hoards dates back to 1533.
     During 1998-1999 he studies. in excavation at XX Directions Sheinkman third building was revealed. It was opened dimensions of 15 x 5 m and has continued under a roadway. The entire complex of buildings identified on the southern side of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, probably represent the remains of the mosque Kul Sharif is in Tezitsky moat.

     Archaeological fragments of stone buildings XVII-XVIII centuries.

     In the excavation III 1995 in the square in front of Cathedral of the Annunciation studied the remains of a brick building that functioned in XVII-XVIII centuries. Foundation rests directly on the cultural layer, shelved during the khanate. The entrance is located on the west side, where the remains of large stones stairs. According to the scribe books, this place was located early bishop's house with adjoining household yard.
     The second building, belonging to the XVIII century, Was built on the foundation of the aforementioned stone building khanate period. The walls and floor are made of its large-sized bricks, lime mortar. In the middle of the building survived the so-called "bath", depth from the floor about 2 pm According to experts, these "baths" produce castings of copper bells, which is confirmed by the findings of copper slag and pieces of ore. Thus, the building, in all probability, was industrial usages.

     Fragments of wooden pavement XIII-XVI centuries.

     On the eastern side of the Annunciation Cathedral were identified as the remains of the wooden street paving in the form of wood residues decay. Traced to 6-8 tiers pavement. Along the street underground cavities fixed residues of carcass constructions.

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