ya_palomnik Complex of fortifications

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Комплекс оборонительных сооружений

Complex of fortifications

     Complex of fortifications includes walls and towers XVI-XVIII centuries., As well as archaeological fragments fortifications X-XVI centuries. The length of the outer perimeter of 1,800 m
     Walls and towers
     Walls and towers, currently existing, were built in several stages: in 1556-1562 gg. Pskov masters headed Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Shiryaev, builders of St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow, built of white stone fortifications with the south and north, and generally repeated configuration and location of the same, Tatar fortress in some areas to include fragments in the structure erected fortifications ; next construction period (end of XVI - early XVII century.) completed the reconstruction of the walls and towers; in the XVIII century. walls are built.
     Turrets in the Kremlin was 13. Their names (from the south clockwise): Spasskaya Passage, Southwest round Transfiguration (on site Temenskoy period Kazan Khanate Sergeevskaya descriptions Scribe book 1566-1568. With the Church) Passage, pentagonal, Nameless Round, Tainitskaya (on site Muraleevyh (Noor Ali) gate period of Khanate of Kazan by Scribe book 1566-1568. Nikolsky Gate with the Church), North round Resurrection Passage (near Elbuginyh (Alabuga) gate period Kazan Khanate ), North-East round Dmitrovskaya Passage (near gate Sboylivyh period Kazan Khanate), Consistory, Southeast round.
     Kazan fortress with thirteen towers listed Gregory Sokovnino Alexei Nikonov and clerks in the census book in 1675, was already a great defense construction. Deep ditch with it slung over a drawbridge separated from the Kremlin tenements. The thickness of the castle walls in the lower tier which are arranged on the inner side covered with arched niches - "Pechura" with loopholes for guns, sometimes comes up to six meters. In special chamber inside the walls stored ammunition: gunpowder, cannon balls, barrels of tar, sand and stones. Combat move outside wall was protected with loopholes and gaps blocked wooden shed rests on pillars, which during the siege immediately understood.
     In the XIX century. dismantled North, Northeast, Dmitrovskaya Passage, pentagonal and North West tower. Towers connected to the fence, divided into stone (mid XVI century.), Brick-stone (the end of the XVI century.) And brick (XVIII-XIX cc.). All five towers are conserved and lost muzeefitsirovat in the field and are subject to a tour of the show.
     Walls lined with two layers of a total height of 12.8 m, completed rectangular prongs on the fence XVI-XVII centuries. and "dovetail" with nadboynichnymi arcs in the areas, reconstructed in the XVIII century. Indoor combat turn plank roof.
     Towers pushed forward out of the plane walls, divided into 2-4 tiers with rectangular and arched loopholes upper tiers complete rectangular teeth, covered tents. Repair and restoration of walls and towers are conducted from the XVIII century. Made to work to strengthen the foundations, laid disclosure loopholes and openings, restoration of teeth, white stone cladding and brickwork. In 1977-1986 years. restored wooden tents on the South-West, the Transfiguration, the Nameless, the Consistory, Southeast towers and wooden cover the period pryasel XVI-XVII centuries. Authors restoration projects architects Aydarov S.S., Kozlov S.A., Gayazova G.M., Popov V.O., Ziganshin R.G., Petruhin V.S. engineers Berim OI Shaymordanov M.H. Foreperson - Tatar specialized scientific and Restoration Board. In 1978-1994 years. opened and preserved foundations of the Northwest Tower project archaeologist Shavokhina L.S. and architect Gantry S.A.
     Spasskaya Tower
     Spasskaya Tower with the Church of Our Saviour image - the main entrance to the Kremlin, is located in the center of the southern section of the fortifications. Built in 1556-1562 years. Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Shiryaev. Room church was originally designed for the storage of camp icons of Ivan the Terrible and other relics of the storming of Kazan Russian troops in 1552 Tower was originally a bunk with wooden hipped roof with a small lookout tower. In the 70-ies. XVII. Tower is built in two tiers with a marquee completion. The two lower tiers (XVI c.) Tetrahedral, white stone, with arched travel. They rely on two brick octagon (XVII century.). In the lower octagon clock is set, the upper cut by arched openings and represents hour belfry. Brick tower completes the marquee. Rectangular volume adjacent to the church tower over the entire length, has a gable roof, facades preserved decor XVI century.
     In the middle of the XIX century, the main entrance to the Kremlin made more comfortable: in the fence of the fortress wall, adjacent to the tower from the east struck lancet arch shape. Crankshaft drive eliminated, his gate. In 70 years on the west side of the tower was built outhouse with stairs leading directly to the church; so that it is completely isolated from the tower. In 1930 was organized functionally necessary direct entry into the Kremlin through the Spassky Gate. In 1963 he appeared on the tower electric clock with dials on the three faces of the octagon and fight with automatic as well as completion of a five-pointed star. To watch tower brought special equipment: now after dark during combat hours appear crimson flash.
     The restoration was carried out in 1957, 1970-1975. We make repairs wooden structures, restoration of white stone masonry walls under the direction of architect Aidarova SS
     Transfiguration Passage Tower
     Pskov masters and built following a rectangular tiered Transfiguration Passage Tower. Erected on the site Temenskoy, this tower on the first tier is supported by powerful buttresses. Currently, through its wooden, iron-bound gate passes the bulk of tourists. Above the gate from the outside left a niche for gate icon. The second tier adapts currently under seasonal cafe for tourists "Temen." This tier is separated from the first to the stone facade roll the same profile as the walls separating the lower tier of the walls on the level of the Battle Phase. The tower is covered with a hipped roof of wooden planks with police along the eaves. Tent erected over the guardroom, cover it with the image completes Prapor Zilant - emblem of the city of Kazan. Tainitskaya Passage Tower
     First from the corner on the north wall of the fortress stands Tainitskaya Passage Tower - the main entrance to the Kremlin from the north-west side. Originally named St. Nicholas, Tainitskaya tower erected in the XVI century on the site of the siege of Kazan exploded Terrible Tower Nur-Ali (Muraleevoy as her name was Russian). His new name she received from the blast destroyed a cache - the underground passage to the source from which precipitated fetched water.
     On this side of October 4, 1552, two days after the capture of Kazan, in lying in ruins khan castle drove Ivan the Terrible. At this point, barely in time, as reported in the "Regal book," "One, ochistiti street to the yard from Tsarev Muraleevyh gate dead bear."
     Built almost simultaneously with the Spasskaya Tower, Tainitskaya unlike her retained crankshaft drive. But its architectural treatment refers to the XVII century. Impressive quadrangular lower tier carries low and less area bushel with modest flat blades and small three-center arched windows framed casing, made chiseled brick roller. With promenades surrounding the upper tier, decorated on the perimeter of Moscow architecture characteristic pants and rolls with a great view of the river and district, in this tier is equipped cafe for tourists "Muraleevy gate." Hipped roof is covered with wooden police. Tent erected over the guardroom, coating completes its rotating sign the World Heritage Committee.
     Stone wall XII-XVIII centuries - Archaeological fragments
     A ruined remains of the southern white stone walls, the construction of which was pre-dated AH Halikov the second half of the XII century. Were first discovered during excavations in 1978 Test excavations for a more thorough dating her were laid in 1995-1998. (Excavations V, XV, XVIII, XX). Building walls horizon early detected in the pre-Mongolian layer. Wall ran along the eastern slope of the Kremlin hill, near the moat Tezitsky turned west, covering thus an area of about 4.5 ha. This wall was partially destroyed during the second half of the XIII century. on the east side. But she was again restored during the collapse of the Golden Horde - at the end of the beginning of XIV-XV centuries. The south wall has ceased to exist in the XV century. in connection with the growth of the city and transfer fortifications. Here before 1552 were stone buildings, possibly related to the Kul Sharif Mosque. Fortress walls of the Kremlin on the east side have been hit hard during the capture of the city by Ivan the Terrible in 1552 and was partially renovated in the second half of the XVI century. Judging by some of the documents and plans of the Kremlin in the late XVII. and the first half XVIII, walls, probably while still functioning.
     Earthen rampart XI-XII centuries - Archaeological fragments
     Ancient fortified settlement Kazan presented archaeological remains of the rampart, built in the late tenth and early XI centuries. These fortifications were along Tezitsky moat and defended the city from the south, the floor side. Width of the base of the shaft 12-14 m, preserved height 0.5 to 2.5 m Loamy mound rests directly on the buried (ancient) surface without a trace of the cultural layer. Accumulated on the slope shaft overlying cultural layer, which detected items XI-XII centuries. (Modeled pottery and ceramics, lapis lazuli pendant, glass chip bracelet, arrowheads).
     On the west side of the fortifications continued settlement traced near Syuyumbekinoy tower.
     In the XI-XII centuries. eastern part of the city was protected by another system of fortifications - a wooden fence or palisade, traces of which were found at the base of the cultural layer in the form of pole diameter of about 20 holes, depth of 20-40 cm size within the original city fortifications was not more than 5.4 hectares.
     Wooden fortifications XV-XVI centuries. - Archaeological fragments
     Reliable, scientifically documented traces of wooden fortifications XV-XVI centuries. not fixed. However, for some, yet not archaeologically verified data, these fortifications existed. For example, in 1881 in the trench, planted near the West round tower, were found remains of some wooden structures, interpreted by archaeologists as "traces of oak base of the fortress wall that ran in 15 fathoms inside from the present." In 1947, also in the profile of the trench NF tap Kalinin observed traces of defensive moat khan of Kazan, which took place north of the modern Spassky Tower.
     Stone Gate XI-XVI centuries - Archaeological fragments
     They are found at the excavation of the XX 1998, laid the western fence of the square in front of Cathedral of the Annunciation in the form of a rectangular stone pylon (5x2 m) - the base gate to travel south of the rock wall. Remains of the other, eastern, pylon excavations revealed AH Khalikova in 1978 distance between the pillars around 5 pm The gate was built in the XII century. They functioned until 1552 between pylons cleared remnants of a stone bridge having four periods of construction or repair.

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