ya_palomnik A complex of the Gun yard

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A complex of the Gun yard

A complex of the Gun yard

     Cannon (Artillery, Ammunition) yard located in the northwestern part of the fortress and is adjacent to the west wall of the fortress. Originally built as a single U-shaped body, attached to the wall of the Kremlin. Now consists of four buildings, restored to different periods.
     The emergence of the complex in the Kazan Kremlin dates from the late XVII century on the location of the arsenal and the Khan's Guard. Constituted his one-storey brick building formed a large casting yard. During the XVII and XVIII centuries. here is manufactured, repaired and stored heavy weapons. The complex consisted of a main building, located along the Great (main) street Kremlin and two buildings adjoining courtyard and limiting the north and south. Entry into the territory was carried out through a travel tower in the center of the main building. This period is represented currently housing the South and the archaeological remains of the existing production facilities within the main building.
     At the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries main building is rebuilt following the change direction on a regular plan in 1768 High Street. The building retains the original compositional intent with travel gate, cut two-storey central volume, symmetrical one-story wings, the corners are built two-storey tower. At the beginning of the XIX century. Gun factory was one of the largest in the country, its reconstruction was carried out with the direct participation of the famous engineer Betancourt, author of the project Manezh in Moscow, located next to the Moscow Kremlin. In 1812, built a new building (west) adjacent to the Kremlin wall. Here are located the new forge. In 1815, a fire occurred in the fortress, which affected all of the Kremlin buildings, including Cannon Yard, after which the production of weapons in the Kremlin stops. This period is now presented the main buildings and the West.
     In 1825, former foundry building Arsenalny and restored for Schools battalions of military cantonments, a foreman was appointed provincial architect Schmidt. Reconstruction of complex completed in 1837. The earlier significant drop relief courtyard was designed benches, buildings renovated, reconstructed the northern facade of the complex, built a new two-storey building, forms part of the south wing, between the main building and the body of the XVII century.
     In 1866 the building of military cantonments Schools passed just opened in Kazan Junker Infantry School. According to the project of the provincial architect N. Gritsevich produced adaptation of buildings for schools. In 1878, a military engineer of the project expands and Fedorov is built North Building.

     The main building

     Chief, East Gun Corps courtyard, first floor XVIII century, Reinsurance 1836, the first floor XX century, Restoration, 1997-2004.
     Originally it was a weapons factory and arsenal. During the expansion of the southern Rizal found foundry to manufacture guns. After transmitting the gun cadet school yard it was adapted for the accommodation of officers. In the first half of XX century. converted into canteens gornizona Kazan. Three two-story one-story wings connected by corbels. They dropped repulsed projecting rusticated plinth, walls with windows between the shoulder blades. Arched windows on the sides limited kontrnalichnikami ending on small arms that rely profiled archivolt with keystones. They are covered with Gambrel roof type dormers-lucarnes with ears. Recent corbels decorated with rusticated pilasters with capitals and bases, decorative panels above and below the windows. Window frame trims with ears on the ground floor with double capstone, with central locking top rounded. Under the two-part roof suitable profiled cornice. Pyramidal roof with a balustrade fencing.
     The decoration of the central projection is the same as that of the side, moreover, by the axis of the facade on the pilasters with capitals relies gable formed profiled cornices. Centered monsardno-hipped roof with two gables brick turret-guardroom, which represents Octogon, ornate arched windows between the shoulder blades on each side. Above the windows are located archivolt with a keystone. Guardroom octagonal helmet-covered roof with four lucarnes.
     Hoisted on the roof of the complex with the spire vazonoobraznym bottom, which are the symbols of the Gun Court - crossed cannons on them - slide cores. Above - an octagonal spire, clenched bottom four acanthus leaves. On completion of the spire intersecting pins hold letters designating parts of the world. Completes the spire vane as an ensign with a slotted labeled "Cannon Yard" entwined ZILANT - symbol of the city of Kazan.
     Central entrance with restoration mimic a wooden gate to the three-center arch with a keystone, which served as the only drive in the yard for safety reasons, store weapons. Currently, in the left wing and second floor dining room of the central projection is located in the left wing - Heraldic Hall. In the southern Rizal and adjoined to it guardhouse connecting housing with East cadet school, equipped with Cannon Museum courtyard.
     The main building renovated during 1995-1999. MMT project under the direction of CA RT Zabirova F.M., architects - Saifullina L.S., Zabirov R.M., engineering part of the project is made by "Tatinvestgrazhdanproekt" under Abdrakhmanov I.S. engineer Iskhakov A.I. and architect Golovin A.V., contractor organizations: firms "Kazanhimstroy", "antiques", "Strojservis".

     North Building

     North Building Cannon yard XVII, Reinsurance XVIII, XX centuries, Restoration 1997-99.
     In the operation of the building several times changed function. Initially the factory shop arms factory, then flat to accommodate officers cadet school, then the ministries and departments, the temporary residence of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan and finally - Executive Office of the President of the RT building.
     The building was restored at the end of the period of XVIII-XIX centuries. A two-storey symmetrical body with a ground floor attached at right angles through the insert width of two windows to the North East rizalit body. Angle of corbels at base encircles an outdoor terrace with stairs on both sides, fenced it balustrade. Beginning and end of stairs punctuated flowerpots on supporting pillars. Windows are quite high plinth with bow-shaped arches and pediments simulating projecting jumper with a keystone. Rusticated ground floor treated with rusticated quadras blades on the corners. They continue on the second floor without the rustication and raskrepovan to the top. Floors are eaves of two shelves. Architraves rectangular windows on the second floor - a simple profile with ears and weatherstrip cornice. Kontrnalichnik crosses the sill and cornice comes to intermediate floor cornice. In the resulting niche made fascia.
     The axis of the building allocated ceremonial portico formed by six smooth pilasters that relies on gable modillions. In the center of the gable placed stucco coat of arms of the Republic of Tatarstan, on both sides of the arms - triangular plaques. Entrance lobby also solved quite parade. On high, fan expanding downward staircase with two side the veranda, fencing with decorative balustrade panels, erected magnificent Altai four square pillars with overhead pilasters profiled archivolt double capstone framing archways. Balcony formed canopy enclosed balustrade flowerpots on supporting pillars. Fence roof balustrade is also satisfied with flowerpots. Over inset connecting North and East Hull, made attic, decorated cornice, pilasters and arch axis. On both sides of the ridge of the roof covering the gable, are two of the flagpole with fluttering flags on them the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan.
     North Building was restored in 1996-1999. Draft PTM SA RT-led Zabirova F.M., Zabirov R.M. architect, engineering part of the project completed by the institute "Kazan Promstroiproekt" under the leadership of Nikitin G.I., architect - Belostotskaya A.H., engineer - Imaykina N.A., contractors: Company LLC "Yoldyz", "antiques", "Strojservis." The interiors are made by Yugoslav "Progressive."

     Southern building

     South - the oldest body Cannon courtyard - the first floor XVII. restoration From 1998-2005.
     West end almost adjacent to the Kremlin wall. Eastern side does not end deaf firewall, and continues picturesque ruins, which must show that he was part of the original U-shaped housing.
     Storey building with a double-height internal space is covered with a wooden plank roof with the police. Located on the roof of the high brick chimneys characteristic bristles at the end, covered with peaked caps, weathervanes completed as an ensign. Facades on the corners and in increments of three windows decorated blades podkarniznym belt laid out border. Bow-shaped windows with arches framed rectangular fascia and trim or roll of chiseled brick. Doorways to the forehead, iron-bound door. To the north wall on the inside and out side the wooden galleries. Outdoor gallery covered continuation police. Currently this building is created exhibition of the Museum of History of Kazan Kremlin.
     Southern building was restored in 1998-2005. Draft PTM SA RT-led Zabirova F.M., architect - Persova S.G., engineering part of the project is made by "Tatinvestgrazhdanproekt" under Abdrakhmanova IS engineer Iskhakova A.I., contractor - OOO "Phobos".

     West Building

     West Building Cannon yard Built 1812 tunable. 1836 ln. floor XX century, Restoration 1996-99.
     This housing was built in hard time for Russia. When Napoleon's troops in 1812, came to Moscow, worked in all the power of the Gun Court in Kazan Kremlin was built urgently this smithy 32 horn. In 1836, in connection with the accession to the Gun Court complex cadet school, its function has changed. In it were placed coach house, the cellar with the glacier, drying and storage. At this time, his appearance has changed a lot. Second floor was built and was attached a wooden gallery. By the end of the XX century. body came in a state of disrepair. As a result, restoration restored the original appearance of the building. Floor, elongated body with a pent roof, which are located 16 pipes. To each tube was coming two horn. The long body is divided into four sections with firewalls facing roof. On the main facade in each section six windows with bow-shaped arches, bisected gate with three-center arches. Collected window wrought iron bars of wavy elements stapled. Wooden gates, double-leaf with a wicket and with forged Kochety and Stukalov. The interiors are open rafters and helpers, warm ceiling sutured to the rafters. Two sections are fitted under TSC and control room, which will focus multifunction control operation of many buildings contour Kremlin. In two sections located so-called Crafts Center. In one - a jeweler-shop. In another - smithy with pottery and sewing workshops relating to the Chamber of Crafts RT.
     West Building renovated in 1995-1999, the project PTM SA RT-led Zabirova F.M., architect - Zabirov R.M., engineering part of the project is made by "Tatinvestgrazhdanproekt" under Abdrakhmanova IS engineer Iskhakova A.I.

     Street XII-XVI centuries, Archaeological fragments

     This area of the Kazan Kremlin was settled no later than the XI century., As evidenced by the presence of complex finds and ancient cultural layer. In the early city, there were houses and outbuildings. Interesting studied in a layer of the Golden Horde period. This is primarily the remains of wooden bridge of a small street, directed by west-east. This direction of the street is not only in the period of the Khanate of Kazan, but later, until the XVII century. Interestingly, in the second half of the Scribe book XVI century. it is mentioned under the name of "the alley opposite the Annunciation." On both sides of the street having a width of not more than 4-5 m, archaeologists uncovered the remains of dwellings - log houses measuring 4 x 5 m, usually underground. They found the most common household items, and sometimes food supplies in the form of clusters of grains of wheat, rye and millet, bones and fish scales, eggshell.
     One of the interesting objects on the territory of the Gun Court - the remains of a small brick building on a stone foundation, built of limestone blocks processed by silt-lime mortar. Unfortunately, it is severely damaged by later pits. Construction horizon of this object clearly traced in the layer of the khanate period, but its destruction only applies to Russian time. Orientation preserved wall fragment coincides with the Muslim buildings on kyblu.

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