|The Kazan Kremlin - history|
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Occurrence and important epoch in the history of the Kazan KremlinThe Kazan Kremlin has passed variety of historical stages in the centuries-old development, always remaining the centre of gravity of surrounding edge.
Favorable prirodno-geographical conditions of the given district long since drew attention of primitive inhabitants of edge. The Kremlin hill from three parties has been surrounded in due time by water. From the east it has been framed by a chain of the lakes running into the river Kazanku, washing a hill from the north. The strip of the fenny marshy meadows located on opposite coast Kazanki behind which dense woods lasted, served as an additional barrier against invasion of enemies from the northwest. From the West and the southwest the fortress was protected by oozy Bulak.
Process of settling of the Kremlin hill went from an extreme antiquity. The earliest finds which have been found out in the Kremlin, concern a mesolit epoch. Such finds as ceramics, fragments сверленного a fighting axe, etc. testify to development of this district and during a bronze epoch. Occurrence in VIII on Average Volga the Bulgarian tribes inseparably linked with the further development of history of the given region. In IХ-Х centuries in area along a channel of the river of Kazanki there is a process of formation of settled settlements, including ancient Kazan. The history of Kazan begins with the most ancient strengthenings булгарского the settlements, built on boundary Х-ХI centuries and распологавшихся on northern extremity of the Kremlin hill.
In to Mongolian the period, with XI till first half XIII centuries, Kazan developed as military-trading settlement. In XII century the Kazan Kremlin becomes a stone advanced post on northern border of Volga Bulgarii. From second half ХIII of century till first half XV century the Kremlin turns to the centre of the Kazan princedom as a part of Golden Horde.
After disintegration of Golden Horde the Kazan Kremlin - the military man and an administrative centre of the Kazan khanate which have independently existed with 1438 for 1552.
After a capture of Kazan in 1552 Ivan the Terrible armies бывщая the capital of the Kazan khanate becomes the administrative and military centre of the attached Volga region (1552-1708 гг). Since 1708 the Kremlin - the centre of the Kazan province.
With 1922 for 1992 the Kazan Kremlin continued to carry out the mission as an administrative centre of the Tatar autonomous republic, and since 1992 as the state centre of Republic Tatarstan as a part of the Russian Federation. In the Kremlin the Republic Tatarstan president residence is located.
According to the Decree of the President of Republic Tatarstan, the Kazan Kremlin is today the state istoriko-architectural and art memorial estate.
From 12/2/2000 the Kazan Kremlin has been included by the decision of UNESCO in the List of the world cultural and natural heritage of UNESCO.
Millenium of KazanOccurrence of Kazan occurred on a general historical background of formation of cities of the Eastern Europe, in particular, Volga Bulgarii.
Ancient Kazan arises in fast growth of power of the Bulgarsky state in territory with favourable prirodno-geographical conditions. Occurrence булгар in a river basin of Kazanki on boundary IX-X of centuries. It is connected with the general process of settling of region Volgo-Kamja by them. The basis of Kazan on a modern Kremlin hill was natural result of development of northwest territories of the Bulgarsky state and speaks aspiration to be fixed new economic territory. From the moment of development of the Kremlin hill булгарами and erections here defensive strengthenings the history of Kazan begins.
Erection of strengthenings begins with northern extremity of the Kremlin hill and concerns boundary Х-ХI of centuries. From South side was also the powerful line of strengthenings has been built. It consisted of an abrupt ditch-ravine in width of 14 m. and depth of 4 m, and also an earthen shaft in width in the basis of 12 m and height to 3 m with travel collars. East and northern lines of strengthenings in the form of a paling of logs in diameter of 20-25 sm with the pointed burnt ends went on hill edge. City building was leaky and had no certain system.
The period of XI - the first half of the XII century marks as a whole process of addition of the city. The Bulgar city on the Kremlin hill at the beginning of XI - the first half of the XII century was a stronghold of northwest borders of the country and protected from infringement of the Russian principalities of the Volga trade way. Strengthening of a role of the Volga Bulgaria in the region and military attacks of the Russian principalities on its territory, XII century which has especially become frequent in the second half, influenced further development of Kazan. At the same time stone fortification constructions are created. As a result of this construction the shape of fortress completely changed. Former wooden strengthenings rather powerful white stone walls about 2 m thick which existed till an era of the Kazan khanate already stood still.
Thus, in XII - the first half of the XIII century the city, keeping substantially the former value as the military fortress and shopping center, considerably I changed. It was surrounded by white stone walls. Outside fortress I functioned craft posad.
With inclusion of Volga Bulgarii and Russian princedoms in a uniform management system of Golden Horde the role of Kazan as frontier fortress has been lost, trading ways have changed also. The protective role of a stone fortress has fallen, and Kazan has got during this period the big independence.
During the zolotoordynsky period Kazan from the suburban city turned into one of the noticeable economic and political centers of Central Volga Area. By the end of XIV - the beginning of the XV century stone construction was resumed. In the middle of the XV century on east and northern slope former strengthenings stopped the existence. Later, in the period of the Kazan khanate, this part of a wall was restored. The southern line of strengthenings continued to function without considerable changes also to the middle of the XV century. The ditch from this party also remained, but its depth because of gradual filling with soil, construction and household garbage decreased to 3 m.
The arrangement of Kazan on one of the most favorable transit trade ways on Volga, undoubtedly, laid the foundation of its further development. From small boundary Bulgar fortress, mainly with military and trade functions on the periphery of the Volga Bulgaria, it in the period of the Golden Horde turned into rather large regional center. The developed circumstances, undoubtedly, made inevitable transformation of the city into the capital of the Kazan khanate.
Hansky KazanIn the middle of XV century, after disintegration of Golden Horde, Kazan becomes an administrative centre of the state which have received in the historical literature the name "Kazan khanate" and existed with 1438 for 1552.
To the beginning of XV century Kazan already represented a large trading-craft city. In its territory trading areas and large villages settled down, and also various craft manufacture (tanning, jeweller, potter's, metallurgical, etc.) concentrated. Amplified economically and politically, Kazan to the middle of XV century has turned to the independent regional centre. These objective reasons in many respects also have defined a choice of the first Kazan khans who have made with its capital, and the strengthened fortress on a hill - a place of the constant stay.
By the time of formation of the Kazan khanate the strengthened part of a city was in limits of an old fortress. After formation of khanate population new territories quickly increase, accustom, the quantity of inhabited and public constructions grows. In second half XV - first half XVI centuries. The Kazan fortress falls outside the limits former strengthenings. In a fortress where archeologists fix traces of 7 streets, there is a building consolidation, appears hansky a court yard, large kirpichno-stone buildings are under construction. It is the Hansky palace, the Hansky mosque, a mosque of Kul-Sharifa, the Hansky mausoleums.
In the city there lived handicraftsmen: metallurgists, smiths, carpenters, bricklayers, tanners, jewelers, potters, etc. As a result of archaeological researches in the territory of the Kremlin big production rooms on production of skin and tanning products were found. Around the destroyed Northeast tower of the Kremlin metallurgical (copper-smelting) horns settled down.
Special position in the state was held by architects with which creativity magnificence of the city of Kazan is connected. Numerous minarets of stone and wooden mosques as if propped up the sky; round them magnificent palaces of masters of the state settled down. In a city architecture local construction traditions of Bulgar times and receptions of visitors of masters from Turkey and Italy merged. Traces of former greatness are numerous finds of openwork carved decorative stones and gravestones, ornaments of plaster jewelry of internal furniture of buildings, multi-color tiles of an external mosaic.
In the city there were mills. In many constructions a large amount of the charred grain that testifies to existence in the city of the handicraftsmen who are engaged in the thresh of grain and baking of bread is found out.
The culture of the Kazan khanate was based on the centuries-old Muslim traditions enshrined in consciousness of many people of the Uralo-Volga region still since an era of the Volga Bulgaria. It incorporated national and professional, written culture. It found reflection in works numerous Bulgar and the zolotoordynskikh of scientists and poets - Cool Ghali, Hodge Ahmed Bulgari, Souleymane ibn Daud Suvari. Unfortunately, much of their heritage was irrevocably lost.
Hansky Kazan represented the large trade and craft medieval city with a high level of development of culture and education where representatives of various people and religiy.bezvozvratno the lost peacefully coexisted.
The Kazan Kremlin - the administrative and military center of the attached Volga region.In 1552 as a result of a long siege Ivan the Terrible's armies and destructive storm Kazan underwent destruction. Evident reflection of the tragedy of the city can be seen in archaeological materials. The fire layer in cultural deposits by the black line differentiates life of hansky Kazan from the subsequent. Traces of storm are the numerous stone kernels found still at excavation in the central part of Kazan. Numerous pishchalny bullets and tips of arrows testify to intensity of fights from archeological excavations.
Many defenders of fortress were killed in bloody battles, and the remained Tatar population was moved out of limits of strengthenings. Process of active settling of Kazan and its vicinities begins the Russian immigrants. There is a change of cultural traditions, new way of city life is formed. The remains of former greatness of the capital were destroyed, adapted the Russian settlers under the new city. Gradually the city extends. The area posad's expands almost twice. By the beginning of the XVII century the number of the yards increases to two thousand. During this period borders of walls of the Kremlin which has remained until now finally are defined. The city becomes one of the largest cities of Russia and is one of the most strengthened fortresses of the Russian state protecting its east boundaries. In the city the administrative and military power over the extensive won region was concentrated. Here the considerable armed forces, allowing to keep local population under control were collected.
Changes concerned also the Kremlin. In 1556-1562 at the request of Ivan the Terrible the Pskov masters led by Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Shiryaem. Which headed St. Basil's Cathedral construction on Red Square in Moscow construction restoration of walls and towers of the Kremlin began. The territory of fortress was considerably expanded. The main part of walls and towers of the Kremlin, as well as Posada, was from a tree. In total in again built up walls of the Kremlin 13 towers from which 5 were travel cards were. Six towers constructed of a stone. Final replacement of wooden defensive works of the Kazan Kremlin by the stone happens only in 30 years - in the 90th years of the XVI century.
Топография кремля сочетала в себе формирующуюся планировку построек русской крепости и сохраняла основные линии застройки булгаро-татарского времени.
The topography of the Kremlin combined being formed planning of constructions of the Russian fortress and kept the main lines of building of the Bulgaro-Tatar time.
Застройка кремля была относительно плотной, но не достигала уровня периода ханства. В общей сложности во второй половине XVI века в кремле насчитывалось около 200 построек, из которых подавляющее большинство представляло собой подворья.
Building of the Kremlin was rather dense, but didn't reach level of the period of the khanate. In total in the second half of the XVI century in the Kremlin about 200 constructions from which the vast majority represented farmsteads were.
One of the first orthodox temples put by Ivan Grozny, Blagovechensky Cathedral is. To the south of Annunciation Cathedral the constructions of the hierarchal yard using buildings of hansky time - a mosque and madrasah complex Cool Sharif settled down. These buildings continued to be used before their full dismantling in the 20th years of the XIX century. In the early Russian time for territories of the hansky yard existence of five stone buildings of hansky time which were used as warehouse is noted. In them stored the weapon, ammunition. Very long with some changes the Hansky mosque and the hansky palace remain. Time of their final destruction is determined by written sources and archaeological data by the beginning of the XVIII century and coincides over time constructions of Vvedenskaya Church and Syuyumbeki's tower. During archaeological works it was succeeded to establish that Syuyumbeki's tower blocks earlier hansky mausoleums and the Hansky mosque.
Thus, the Kremlin of the end of the XVI-XVII centuries keeps the medieval shape combining traditions of the bulgaro-Tatar culture and the Russian which has joined it. This combination can be seen in placement of strengthenings, planning of streets, in architecture of buildings of later periods too reflecting in symbiosis of cultures.
After falling of Kazan walls and towers of the Kazan Kremlin were reconstructed; residential, prisutstvenny and cult buildings of the imperial yard and the cathedral Qol Sharif mosque disappeared, having given way to the Russian state houses and orthodox temples. It is impossible to say that the Kazan Kremlin in the middle of the XVI century at all lost the former centuries-old shape. The amazing unity of its zodchesky ensemble which has developed in centuries once again reminds of that, as the Old Russian architecture in the historical development came under influence both West European, and the east Asian architectural traditions.
The Kazan Kremlin of the period of the Russian Empire and in Soviet periodBasic changes were carried out to fortresses in the XVIII-XIX centuries. After education in 1708 годут I became the Kazan province Kazan the center of extensive edge. During this period in the territory of the Kremlin buildings of offices for officials, yunkersky school were built the governor's palace, Blagovechensky Cathedral is reconstructed.
In process of advance of borders of the Russian state to the south and the East the Kazan Kremlin gradually lost military function. At the same time its administrative function that was reflected in its internal architectural shape became stronger. This shape lost primordially Tatar lines more and more, getting instead of line of the Russian and West European influence. The Tatar population of Kazan and at the beginning of the eighteenth century had no free access to the Kremlin.
Certain losses were suffered by the Kazan Kremlin in connection with its siege E. Pugachev's armies. Pugachevsky storm became the last in military history of the Kazan Kremlin. Pugachevsky revolt of 1773 - 1775 turned again the Kazan Kremlin into the fortress at which the risen fired guns within two days. On July 14, 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev's armies were compelled to recede from Kazan. Yemelyan Pugachev nevertheless visited the Kazan Kremlin - it contained in one of its casemates on the way on execution to Moscow.
Since 1774 the architect V. I. Kaftyrev started realizing the plan of city building of Kazan. The comprehensive plan provided construction in the Kremlin of ensemble of Offices within complex building of the areas surrounding the Kremlin and streets. Skillful planning allowed to keep untouched all largest and considerable constructions which became a component of the new town-planning scheme. The central point of this scheme there was the Kazan Kremlin from which wide streets radially departed.
The modern city ensemble surrounding the Kazan Kremlin, as well as internal architectural complex of the Kremlin, in the main and whole received the end to the middle of the fortieth years of the nineteenth century. Since then the main lines of city building in which center there is the Kazan Kremlin as the most important composite knot of Kazan, remain in all the historical invariance.
From 1922 to 1992 the Kazan Kremlin is an administrative center of the Tatar autonomous republic.
In the 1920-1930th years when there was a destruction of cult buildings over all country, considerable losses in ensemble were suffered also by the Kazan Kremlin.
After 1917 archaeological studying of the Kremlin by such scientists as N. Borozdin, N. Kalinin, since 1976 - A.X. Halikov begins. With formation of the Tatar Restoration workshop in the sixties, work on scientific restoration of constructions of the Kremlin under the leadership of the architect S. S. Aydarov, then - S. A. Kozlova began.
Modern KremlinIn 1992 it was formed the Republic of Tatarstan as a part of the Russian Federation. The Kazan Kremlin became the residence of the first President of the Republic of Tatarstan - Mintimer Sharipovich Shaimiev.
In 1993-94 under the leadership of the architect S. S. Aydarov and the historian-archeologist A.X. Halikov the Main directions of reconstruction and development of a complex of the Kazan Kremlin were developed.
2On January 2, 1994 the Decree of the President of the Republic of Tatarstan creates the State historical and architectural and art memorial estate "Kazan Kremlin" which has laid the foundation to systematic scientific studying of a complex of the Kremlin in all directions. Ildus Vakhitov became his first director. Originally in staff of the memorial estate 7 people worked. Today the number of the collective headed by Ramil Hayrutdinov, makes more than three honeycombs employees. For this period a great job on restoration and restoration of objects of the memorial estate was done. The most part of the defensive walls, three towers - Preobrazhenskiy, Taynitsky, Voskresensky is carefully restored. The bases of four earlier fallen and sorted towers were studied by archeologists. Their preservation and muzeefikation were executed. In a complex of the former Governor's palace the Governor's palace - nowadays the Residence of the president of Tatarstan, with revival of palace anfiladny planning and the smart square in front of the main facade is completely restored. The former Vvedenskaya or Palace Church, strongly injured in Soviet period when in it the dining room settled down is restored. Falling of Suyumbike Tower which deviated an axis almost on 2 meters is stopped by means of strengthening of the bases. With a muzeefikation some objects in this most interesting part of the Kremlin underwent the XV-XVI centuries preservation: these are the archaeological remains of one of representative buildings from a complex of the hansky yard, a hansky mosque, a tomb of the Kazan khans. Mausoleum construction for a reburial of remains of the khans taken during excavation is begun.
Four buildings entering a complex of the Gun yard were restored. In a complex of the Hierarchal yard work on restoration of a unique architectural monument - cathedral Blagovechensky Cathedral is performed.
Striking example of an embodiment of centuries-old traditions of the Kazan Kremlin in modern forms is the Qol Sharif mosque. Works on its reconstruction began in 1995. The complex of a mosque was initially planned as not so much cult, how many the cultural and educational and memorial center. In the first floor of the building there is Islam Museum.
In 2000 the Kazan Kremlin was included in the List of the world cultural and natural heritage of UNESCO.
In spite of the fact that in preservation and restoration of architectural and historical heritage of the Kazan Kremlin it is made much, however still a lot of work ahead is necessary.