ya_palomnik Presidential Palace Complex

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Presidential Palace Complex

Presidential Palace Complex

     Governor's Palace complex is located in the northern part of the Kremlin, in the highest part of it, in the place of the palace complex of Kazan khans, the remnants of which remained until the end of the XVIII century. The complex consists of the Governor's Palace: Governor's Palace, the Tower Syuyumbeki, Palace Church.

     Governor's Palace

     Governor's Palace was built in 1845-1848 as the home's "military governor with the premises for the imperial apartments" by the famous architect K.A. Tona, the author of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour and the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow. Its construction managed by the architect A.I. Peske, directed from Petersburg to Kazan to work in the building commission to rebuild the city after the fire of 1842. In interiors participated M.P. Corinfsky. The palace was built on the site where the capital was located khan palace complex, and in the XVIII century, was the chief commandant's house. Founded in 1845 and finished at the end of 1848, it consists of a main building and the adjacent courtyard with low tsirkumferentsii services. Prior to 1917, the building was the palace of the governor of Kazan with the premises of the imperial apartments.
     The palace consists of a main building and adjacent to the north low semicircles with travel services to the patio. Two storey building with mezzanine floor and basement, brick. The main building is connected through the transition to the second floor of the Palace Church. The internal layout is solved by enfilade system.
     The two-story with the mezzanine and basement of the building has a symmetric solution. Center of the main facade is risalit c eight pairs located on the second floor semi-columns with smooth stems and capitals in the Corinthian order, surmounted by a pediment, is a three arch keeled. In the middle arch placed emblem of the Republic of Tatarstan. The main facade has two entrances in the form of porches on two columns with palm capitals, separated by two belts in half. The upper part of the barrel with spiral columns konnelyurami, bottom - vertical. The first and second floors of the building are broken near banker's pilasters and arched windows. Second floor windows have suspended arches with stucco little weights. Ground floor windows with semicircular openwork binding. The prototype of the general solution of the main facade of the Governor's Palace, and in particular, windows served the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow. Central Rizalit punctuated parade decorated flagpole which flies the presidential standard.
     In interiors, unlike eclecticism processing facades dominate theme in the style of Russian classicism modernized; it was performed under the supervision of M.P. Corinfsky, who worked in Kazan in 1832-51 years.
     Very good proportions Antechambers second floor at the front; it is covered with large Korobov vault strikings, cut with deep niches inscribed in them windows and doorways. Shaped gilded shelf underlined heel arch; a narrow strip of gilt outlined outlines window niches. Three tall doors leading into the great hall, meet the solemn nature of the main administrative building of apartments edge.
     In a large white room "Gothic" with flat canopy and larger planes mirrors on the walls, gilt introduced not only in the pattern of the frieze and ornamental canopy, but also in the decoration of the front doors.
     Eclecticism with elements of Russian classicism, baroque, ancient Russian architecture, the pseudo style.
     Repair and restoration work carried out in 1950, renovated in 1979 lobbies, in 1983 - the main facade by architect SNRPM S.A. Kozlova
     In 1996-97 Works on reconstruction horseshoe outhouse, building restoration project designed PTM SA RT F.M. Zabirova and by "Tatinvestgrazhdanproekt" building completely restored in 1998-2001.

     Palace Church

     Palace Church is located on the west side of the Governor's Palace, the gallery junction connects the Governor's palace. The church was built in the XVII century. Originally called the Presentation, renovated in 1852 and re-consecrated in 1859 in the name of St. Descent Spirit.
     Quadrangular domed main temple with a typical baroque raskrepovka underpinning beams columns with magnificent capitals at the corners and ornate window frames, put on a two-story basement. Lower openings podklet decorated architraves of kirpinyh rollers with keel-shaped top above door and window openings on the triangular. Onion dome decorated with overlaid over oak wreaths and branches, cover the edges of the faces. Quadrangular towers over the cloister-porch with beautiful faceted pillars. Gallery, which is a broad outer staircase, originally may have been ambulatory. Fencing gulbischa turning into fence outside staircase, decorated his pants coupled with a number of crackers. Promenades along the top and the quadrangle decorated eaves on the quadrangle mukarnami added to them and crunches. Covered walkway church joined in the XIX century. with the governor's house on the second floor (the building then the Council of Ministers and the Supreme Council of Tatarstan, now - the residence of the President of RT). Transfer window made repeated biforiumami. The facades are decorated in the style of Russian Baroque XVIII century.
     Tatar SNRPM made repair and restoration work, measurements and inspections by architects S.S. Aidarova, V.S. Petrukhina in 1958, 1967, 1975. Was restored in 2000-2006.

     Tower Syuyumbeki

     Suyumbike Tower is an architectural emblem of the city. Its name is connected with the name of the Tatar Queen Syuyumbeki - wife of the last two of Kazan khans. Built in the second half XVII-XVIII centuries early. At the earliest plans of the city of the XVIII century, it shows how to enter the courtyard chief commandant's house stood on the site of the "old tsar's court", where the ruins of Khan's Palace Kazan governors adapted for storage of gunpowder and lead nitrate. Undoubtedly its similarity to Borovitskaya tower of the Moscow Kremlin.
     Five-tiered tower - three decreasing height and the width of the tetrahedron, climbing ledges are two octagon completed slender brick faceted tent in the form of a truncated octagonal pyramid, whose faces are marked roller made in brick, with sentinel Sentry over it, topped with a gilded spire crescent on the apple. Overall height is 58 meters.
     Cloister of the three lower floors - ambulatory, surrounded by parapets with simple, but in each tier a decorative treatment - it is on the ground and his pants, belts made flagstone on the second and third or a simple overlap in several rows of the upper tiers. The faces of all tiers underlined thin blades or rollers. Window and door openings at the top levels of 2,3,4 end three-center arches and have rectangular brick trim roller. Fifth storey window and guardroom with semicircular arches and simple archivolt. The lower tier of the tower consists of two pylons connected cylindrical vault over drive. On the south and north facades pylons and four faces of a truncated pyramid round windows, framed by brick roller. On the west and east facades pylons have two decorative columns, ending at the top capitals reflect oriental flavor. They are very similar in form mukarnasy (stalactites). Small door located on one side facades, lead to the wall stairs, reaching the third tier (above the seedlings are wooden). Brick arches span space in the upper quadrangle and the first octagon. Suyumbike tower has a noticeable slope in the south-east side. Misalignment is 1 m 98 cm
     In the years 1914-1916 due to the deviation from the vertical tower restoration works were carried: the lower tier was covered with metal belt, a little distorted architectural appearance of the tower.
     In the period from 1941 to 1955, studies were conducted state foundations, towers and architectural measurements made projects to strengthen the foundations of the tower Project Design Trust office by advancing and demolition of buildings under the guidance Pearlstein ZM Experts - pers. corr. USSR Academy of Architecture, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences Rotert PP; Professor VK Amohovsky, Ph.D. Shukhov SV
     In 1958-1959, the Tatar SNRPM produced restoration exterior cladding of the tower by architect Aidarova SS, restored fill openings and internal wooden structures.
     In 1977-78, the engineering made strengthening the foundations of the tower on the project, implemented by the institute "Tatgrazhdanproekt" number 2 in the studio under the guidance O.I. Berim and A.I. Iskhakova.
     In the period from 1985 to 1991 are met: the project for the conservation of the tower Syuyumbeki institute "Tatgrazhdanproekt" under A.I. Iskhakova; production work on strengthening the foundations of the tower by way buroinektsionnyh piles management "Gidrospetsstroy"; restoration of the facades and interiors of the tower by the Tatar SNRU by architect GM Gayazovoy using an original technique of surface strengthening and toning masonry walls; manufacture and installation of complete tower Syuyumbeki lunate with gilding.
     In 1998 was held to strengthen the foundations of the tower, resulting in movement of the tower was stopped.
     In 2004, a travel iron gate hinged arch inscribed with the upper arch completion of images of the sun, crescent, zodiac signs and zoomorphic motifs on the perimeter. Double gates, with wickets in each valve, lockable Sekirnaya type with hanging Stukalov as lions' heads.
     Currently, the slope of the tower is 1.8 meters

     Architectural and archaeological fragments mausoleums XV-XVI centuries.

     Archaeological expedition in 1977 in the area of the tower Syuyumbeki (western side) examined the remains of two monumental stone mausoleums burials committed by the classical Muslim ceremony. In mausoleums buried Kazan khans Mahmud son Ulugh Muhammad (died in the early 1460's.) And Muhammad Amin (d. 1518).
     Both mausoleum strongly disturbed late sewer trenches. Podkvadratnuyu had in terms of shape (8,5 x9 m - external dimensions). The width of the walls around 1 m; it is built of hewn limestone blocks of 40h60h20 cm, fastened together with a weak mortar admixture brick chips.
     In mausoleums were cleared burial pit burials in wooden coffins (250h60 - 80x50 cm), which were taxed outside thin well-dressed leather, fastened with silver nails. These tombs in the necropolis were nobility, located in the western part of the Khan's court.
     Identified architectural and archaeological fragments preserved by architect F.M. Zabirova.

     Archaeological fragments of stone pylons (minaret or watchtower) XIII-XIV centuries.

     During archaeological investigations in 1977, carried out in the western part of the tower Syuyumbike A.H.Halikovym were vsryty remains of two stone structures (№ № 2 and 3), construction of which was lying on the horizon pre-Mongol layer or layers at the base of the Golden Horde. Construction number 3 came to us in the form of ragged stone masonry introduced in specially dug pit (430 x 360 cm). The foundation of this building is made of limestone on clay-silt solution.
     Construction number 2 is also a white-stone building (365 x 450? Cm); Brigandine laying on clay solution. Extant height of both structures about 40-50 cm, width 95-100 cm walls studied structures may be associated with the remnants of patrol-guard tower with two pylons (350 x 430 cm), spaced 350 cm, ie which had a gap for passage. A.H. Halikov not exclude the possibility of interpretation of this object and how the minaret of the mosque. Later, at about this same place was built until now preserved tower Syuyumbeki.
     Identified architectural and archaeological fragments preserved by architect F.M. Zabirova.

     Eastern slope of the Kremlin hill (Remains of street pavement and wooden buildings XV-XVI centuries).

     As a result of research at the bottom of the Kremlin hill (excavation XIII) on the east side were identified unique wooden architecture built Tatars of Kazan Khanate period. They were located along the street pavement of oak bark in several tiers. Identified buildings were the remains of farm buildings associated with the tanning industry.
     XIII south excavation revealed the remains of a wooden bridge over the Kazan Khanate period rather a deep hollow.

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