Tatars in Iran

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     Only today we started to realise, as far as on a substantial scale a name of the Tatar people. Such name to much obliged, forced to think more widely and more globally. Tatars was really the Euroasian name who are not limit to frameworks of any region or the country. It as quintessence of nomadic spirit as if skipped on the world, everywhere le the trace. It are a name and today connected us with many great events of the past, with far-away countries and the people. One of such countries about which in Tatarstan while known it are a little, but gradually started to learn, Iran are. We had tr to find the trace which had g lost in the history of the Iranian Tatars in g article.

     Tatars in the Persian culture

     In it rather significant event presentation of two books which should become the first editions on stories and ethnography of the Tatar people in the Persian language are necessary to year. Both books represented collective work of scientists of Institute of history of Academy of Sciences of the republic Tatarstan. The g step are urg to acquaint scientific community of Iran with Tatars the people with whom Iran connected set visible and hidden cultural - historical links. The Tatar culture developing in a close connection with the persoyazychny world who are considered a cradle of a modern Muslim civilisation. It are possible to tell that the Persian influence though and mediat by Central Asia, were determin for all Tatar culture throughout the whole millenium. The Persian culture also are complete of hints on tyurko-Tatars as successors of nomadic empires of the past.

Unfortunately, today Iranians was in the bulk a little familiar with Tatars. At the mention of a name of Tatars the majority of them at the best had associations with wild nomads who in the past had w them the country and had ruin one of the major centres of an Islamic civilisation - the city of Bagdad. The majority are more their simply never hear about existence of Tatars. Some Iranians, mainly representatives of the senior generation, remembered also a screen version of the semifantastic novel of Jules Verna Michael Strogov which were broadcast on the Iranian television in 1970th. This adventure novel are wr to 70th of the XIX-th century in characteristic spirit for this genre and described events, as though events in modern to readers time on the brink of a civilisation - in far Siberia.

In Mikhail Strogov novel the courier on service at the tsar of Alexander of II. When the Tatar khan Feofar lifted revolt in the east of Siberia, Strogov on the instructions of the tsar went to Irkutsk. The task of Strogova to warn the governor of Irkutsk, the brother of the tsar, about plot prepar against it and high treason of Ivan of Ogaryov. On the way he met to Nadj Fedorov, Harry of Blounta the reporter of the English newspaper, and the employee of the French newspaper Alcide Zholive. and Zholive gone almost the same road, as Michael, constantly part and me on the way. Soon Michael and Nadia was taken prisoner to head by Ivan Ogaryov to group of Tatars. Them charged of espionage. On a sentence of khan Feofara, Michael, according to the Tatar laws, blinded, ha conduct it on eyes a raskalyonny sword. Soon Nadia and Michael manage to run, and they by means of one of the Siberian peasants reached Irkutsk where had time to warn the governor.

There are a version that a prototype of khan Feofara were last Kazakh khan-chingizid Kenesary Kasymov whom all three zhuzov had proclaim itself the governor and had head national-liberation revolt in 1837-1847. Revolt were accompan by displays really the Asian cruelty that had receiv reflexion in Zh.Verna's product and had been very frankly show in the cinema version of the novel.

Certainly, a film Michael Strogov c aggravate only the image which had t roots among modern Iranians of the Tatar as the wild nomad and the enemy of a civilisation. However in minds of most educat Persians the word "Tatars" caused also a bit different associations.

That part of the Iranian intelligency who are well familiar with masterpieces of classical Persian poetry, could tell also about the Tatar musk and the Tatar fallow deer about which wr them virtuosos of a poetic word Manuchekhri, Nasir-i Hosrou, Saadi, Hagani and Nizami Gyandzhevi. From time immemorial the Tatar fallow deer in Persia nam a special kind of a fallow deer musky , liv on hillsides of the Himalayas and Tibet and develop aromatic substance musk who were long since appl in production of aromas. Thanks to this special aroma the Tatar fallow deer becoming in the steady poetic image. Musk there where there were the Tatar fallow deer - wrote Manuchekhri. Bottoms echoed it: The Tatar fallow deer are graz on hyacinthine fields, because the wind brought on a market aroma of musk. Haggani continued: Captivated the Tatar fallow deer your bewitching amber sight.

     Who was they was Tatars of medieval Iran?

     It agreed to the Iranian sources, Tatars had appear in Iran in 1230-1243 as a part of the Mongolian army. After a victory of Mongols over an army of seldzhuksky governor Kaykhusrava at Kyose-Dage in 1243 the most part of these Tatars had settl in fight in Anatolys. As it is known, the Mongolian commander from a tribe "yesut" were more their the leader than Baydzhu-noyon who had receiv the big ground grants from Hulagu hana and which descendants deputies the anatoliyskikh of ownerships of the khan. These Tatars had receiv imenovaniye a penalty of Tatars (black Tatars) or Kyuyin of Tatars.

At the end of the XIV century of anatoliyskiye a penalty Tatars had appear under the power of Osmanli Turks and, ha unexpectedly c over to the side of Tamerlana, had play a pivotal role in defeat of osmansky army in fight near Ankara in 1402. Then many of them had mov on the east to Khurasan, ha receiv generous grants from them the new sovereign. From now on the small group constantly living in Iran the tyurkoyazychnykh of Tatars. The relatives which have remain in Anatolys was more their, and to this day lived in Turkey and along with seminomadic Turkmans and yozgatami was considered one of ethnographic groups of the Turkish people. The destiny the horasanskikh a penalty Tatars had develop in a bit different image.

Horasansky a penalty Tatars, referred to as on a farce karayi, in XVI-XVII centuries beg to serve Sefevidsky governors who afraid of them large number and military valour that is why beg to settle them in various areas of Iran and Afghanistan. In 1735 Nadir shakh had collect about 4000 Tatar families and had lodg them in vicinities of the cities of Torbat-e of Haydariye and Haf, ha put over them the chief Nadzhafali Kuli-Khan Kara Tatara. Sons of this military leader Sardar Iskhak Khan Karai-Turbati and Sardar Mahomed Khan Karai-Turbati, had us chaos and the confusion which had beg after death of Nadir shakha, and had creat independent khanate in the east of Iran which had been final subordinat by Kadzharami's new Iranian dynasty only at the end of the 1820th. Members of this family up to 1925 deputies in Torbat-e Haydariye one of the important military-political centres in the east of the country.

Reza khan Pekhlevi who had c to power in 1925 had beg a policy of violent reconducting the nomadic people on a settled conduct of life. Many a penalty Tatars which and had los earlier a native language and had pass on Persian, had appear in cities where final dilut among the persoyazychny population, ha le a trace in external shape of some horasanets, differ wide cheekbones and slanting eyes.

     Tatars in modern Iran

     Nevertheless, Tatars not dilut completely and had le reminders on the stay in the most different corners of Iran. I managing to find out that about twenty geographical objects in modern Iran among which there was villages, villages, hills, cemeteries, had an element of "Tatars" in the name. These objects was scatter in huge territory from borders with Iraq, Turkey and Armenia to Turkmenia and Afghanistan. Big them the part are connect with historical black Tatars who liv in the west of Iran near to Turkish border, and in the east of the country around Torbat-e Haydariye, Hafa, Kashmara, Makhmudabada, Torbat-e Dzham, Soltanabada and Torshiza. Some clans "penalty Tatars" settl by 400 with superfluous of years back by Sefevidami, lived in the central areas of Iran - provinces Yezd and Kerman, and also in vicinities of Shiraz as a part of the breeding union of kashkayets consist from the persoyazychnykh, the tyurkoyazychnykh and the araboyazychnykh of tribes. The part of black Tatars had appear in Afghanistan, and them representative Kamaluddin of Tatars had t part in IV congress of the World Tatar congress in of Kazan where he had declar in 2007 that in Afghanistan lived 500 000 Tatars.

However not all Tatar names can be coordinat with descendants of the Mongolian aggressors of Iran. Some of them had the history. In the winter of 2011 I managing to visit the village Bottom Tatars (Tatar e of payin, Tatar e ), Golestan locat in a province, approximately in 100 kilometres from Turkmen border. In immediate proximity from this village there was still two settlements with similar names Top Tatars and Tatar Baydzhik (Karasu). Unfortunately, my stay in this village were rather short, and I c not inspect all villages of it Tatar enclave in mainly Turkmen on an ethnic railroad train of a province of Golestan, however I managing to collect general data on this village.

     Mosque in the village Bottom Tatars

     The general population of all three settlements constituted by the most modest estimation of 12 000 persons. It agreed to the official data, Top Tatars receiv by the status of a city some years ago, and Turkmans, Persians, Kurds lived in it along with Tatars, beludzhi and families of refugees from Afghanistan. Bottom Tatars the smallest village of it Tatar enclave in whom are no more than 500 court yard. Unfortunately, I had stay there only about three hours, however had ha time to have a talk with aksakals who had gather for an evening Mohammedan prayer in one of two mosques of the village.

Inhabitants of the village named themselves Tatars and all carried the same surname of Tatari. On the statement of aksakals, approximately 200 years ago them ancestors had mov to northern Iran from Russia (one of respondents even had specif that they had c with territory of Siberia, a little others besides Russia had mention as former habitats them ancestors also China, Turkmenia and Kazakhstan). Them ancestors le a seminomadic conduct of life and had final pass to complete settled way of life only in 1930th. On one of versions, certain epidemic were the reason of perekochevka, and them ancestors had cho these places because of availability of pure flowing water.

Inhabitants of the village spoken in Turkmen language, adhered to sunnitsky sense of Islam (hanafitsky mazkhab). The important role in religious life of inhabitants of the village are play by sufiysky tarikat of Nakshbandiya. There was seida (descendants of prophet Mahomed) whom named . Curious that fact are represented that old men and some young parishioners of a mosque worn traditional clothes who strongly differed from a Turkmen national suit, and reminded traditional clothes of Tatars of the pre-revolutionary period.

The most part of inhabitants of the village external not strongly differed from the Turkman, represent transitive type from mongoloidny race to the indo-Iranian branch of evropeoidny race. However I managing to see many people with a light skin, a fair hair, green or even blue eyes with absence characteristic for Turkis Tsetralnoy of Asia of epikantus. As I had underst, inhabitants of the village connected similar signs with the Russian origin of the ancestors.

Inhabitants of the village shared on four clans Dzhafarbay, Dzhafaratabay, Gyoklen and Yomud () which was known breeding divisions of the Turkmen people.

Of significant events which remained in memory of older persons, a certain frontier conflict with the Russian armies in 1908 when during firing between inhabitants of the village and Russian soldiers were lost some persons, including women and children were one. Them tombs was known on a local cemetery as tombs of shahids.

To my astonishment, inhabitants of the village perfectly kn about existence of the Republic Tatarstan with the capital in the city of Kazan, they with a great interest watched news from Tatarstan, transfer on the Iranian television channels. It are known also that the mullah from the next village Tatar Baydzhik (Karasu) of Seid Akhund of Tatars coming earlier to Tatarstan. Old men also well responded about pre-revolutionary Muslim editions of the Tatar typography in Kazan which in use among them fathers and grandfathers.

The population had s down approximately 3000 persons (according to inhabitants). In the village there was 2 mosques and 1 school. Houses was under construction in the core of a brick, there was also wooden structures. The basis of an economy are constitut by agriculture: bakhchevy cultures (melons, water-melons), tomatoes, wheat, barley, rice, clap. Development of agriculture are promot by a favourable damp climate that are connect with affinity of Caspian sea.

Widespread otgonny cattle breeding, including horse breeding (however, as food they done not use a horse-flesh). Traditional entertainments was equestrian sport (bayga) and struggle on belts (kuresh). Popular dance are Zikr-i handzhar which performed some men who are h over a head daggers and cr out words of glorification of Supreme and blessing of prophet Mahomed. Competitions of singers, musicians, poetic competitions was conduct. Most popular poet Makhtumkuli's well-known Turkmen poet are considered. Besides Muslim holidays Nauruz (Navryz of bayrama) are celebrat.

Among natives of the village the Iranian artist Annamukhammed Tatari (I was born in 1956). The works execut in style etno-avant-guard with use of traditional Turkmen motives was more its, was stor in the British museum of London, the Teheran Museum of Modern Art, funds of the Iranian academy of arts and other museums of the world. It taking part in various exhibitions and the biennials of the international level which were pass in England, France, Italy, Portugal, Venezuela, Jordan, Armenia, India, the United Arab Emirates, Morocco etc.

Unfortunately, the information collect by me had rather superficial character, and further it are necessary to organise ethnographic expedition for more detailed studying of inhabitants of this village and two next villages b a name of Tatars. However on the basis of the available information it are already possible to push the version about availability of a historical link between inhabitants of the above-named three villages, and the Siberian Tatars.

Anyway, the fact of availability at compactly liv in Iran and much are possible not unique group of the tyurkoyazychny population of the self-name of "Tatars" changed, and first of all changed image of the Tatar nation. Till now Tatars position almost as the European nation, and most active part of foreign Tatar diaspora had geographically been connect with Europe (Finland, Lithuania, Belarus, Romania, Germany, Australia, the USA etc.). Turkey in whom stories during the different periods f a haven of ten, and even hundreds thousand Tatars, possessed today exclusive position in the Muslim world and in any sense are a part of Europe. China and Japan who also had accept a considerable quantity of the Tatar emigrants, culturally also was guided by the Western world, therefore and Tatars liv there aspir to emigrate as soon as possible to the USA, Australia and other western countries. In this case, Iran and Afghanistan become the unique countries of residing of the Tatar diaspora whom it are possible to consider as a part of deep Asia, it are ready to a lesser degree mention by the western cultural influence. Development of communications with the Tatar diaspora of these countries could help to overcome develop European "warp" in international backgrounds of the Tatar people. The revealing of this Asian component of the Tatar diaspora concentrat at the same in the countries, considered as a tsivilizatsionny kernel of the Islamic world, and the traditional Muslim societies which had bec an organic part, allowed to realise in more complete measure a historical link of Tatars with the world of Islam. Thus, Tatars not always kept within a stereotypic image of the certain European focus Moslems b the European values to the people of the East as it were in Central Asia. It showed originally Euroasian character of the Tatar nation unit the East and the West, traditions of Islamic culture and the best achievements of the western civilisation.

Ismagil Gibadullin

The expert of the Center of the Euroasian and international researches of the Kazan federal university, the secretary of Tatarstansky department of the Organization of solidarity and cooperation with the people of Asia and Africa

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