Arkan and saber for Lithuania - Polish-Lithuanian TatarsAuthor Wojciech Kos
Foray invincible hordes, whistling arrows and swords ringing and the sky from a charred and burnt huts crowds yasyr gone to the slave markets of the Crimea, as many of us were brought up in the modern culture, imagine Tatars. Only here often in the stories of writers yes movies nobody remembers that from the time of Vytautas the Great, many of the Tatars, having moved to Lithuania, which they may protect breast Lithuanian native land. Fought with the Crusaders, many Tatars were killed at the Battle of Grunwald in the field, when the Poles, Lithuanians and Russian forever broke the power of the Teutonic Order.
From that time to the present day story of Tatars living in Lithuania, entwined with the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland. Soldiers and scientists, artists, Tatars entered forever in our Lithuanian life as culinary heritage of this nation. Glory traditional poppy strudel stuffed Lithuanian Tatars shimtalapisa (literally - stolistnika) sold far beyond the borders of Lithuania. On what lives current Tatar community, "Lithuanian Courier" said Hadas Jakubauskas, chairman of the Union of Lithuanian Tatars communities.
- Historians are making a lot of effort to ensure that establish the exact date of settlement of Tatars in Lithuania.
- Tatars in Lithuania appeared in the years 1319-1321, those were the days of the first Union Tatars Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas. That wave of Tatar settlers quickly dissolved in the then Lithuanian society, adopted Christianity, abandoned their native language. Unfortunately, those Tatars almost no any information. As for us, because we are the descendants of the Tatars, which began arriving in Lithuania for 1395 - 1398 years. Our ancestors managed to preserve their faith, national identity. And although we have forgotten our native language and communicate in Russian, Lithuanian and Polish, it is our belief gave us the opportunity to stay Tatars. Tatars received plots of land, settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. So there village near Vilnius Nemezhis Forty Tatars in the current Alytus region - Rayzhyay. Also one of the largest and most famous centers of settlement of Tatars in Lithuania was Trakai.
- What were the Tatars in Lithuania?
- First and foremost the responsibility of our ancestors in Lithuania was military service, instead Tatars received allotments. Tatars humble origin settled in the countryside, doing gardening, crafts, reindeer leather, horse breeding. Before the advent of the railroad Tatar cabbies engaged in transportation and delivery of goods in the territory of the Commonwealth. I would like to quote the poet's brother Adam Mickiewicz - Frantisek: "You can count 2000 horses, which are always ready to harness the Tatars, however, when it comes to contracts in Dubna, Kiev, Vilnius, Minsk and other places frequented [horses] difficult to hire them ... horses are small, hardy, accustomed to running on a long journey, stretching for several weeks ... They [the Tatars] are known for their honesty, even the most poor Tatar sent a large sum of money or any valuables, or important documents always justify the confidence. There was no case to Tatar tried for criminal offense villainy ..."
- But Tatars entered the annals of history not only as carriers of goods honest ...
- Yes, a little later settling Tatars in Lithuania began to form Tatar banners - fighting units, consisting mainly of the Tatars. Formed shelf front guards were among the first combat units guarding the borders of the Commonwealth. Unfading glory covered himself regiment Jozef Belyakov, Major General, who was awarded the highest order of Rzeczpospolita Virtuti Military Merit in the Polish-Russian war of 1792 and a member of Tadeusz Kosciuszko uprising. Protection of Lithuanian Tatars came more than 40 generals, and our ancestors served in the Polish, and the royal armies. Some genera of troops even came into being thanks to the Tatars. Here's take, for example, the kind of light cavalry - Lancers. Ulanskaya cavalry, according to one version, owes its origin and name Tatar Colonel Alexander Ulan. Since the regiment colonel was widely known throughout the Commonwealth, the soldiers of his regiment soon became known as "lancers". Among the representatives of our people were not only military ... I would like to recall also Olga Maleytinayte, prima ballerina of the Kaunas State Theatre. Among her pupils are known as Lithuanian ballerina Tamara Svyantitskayte, Genovaite Sabalyauskayte. In honor of Olga Maleytinayte 1996 Yu Smoriginas created choreography, "My Life."
Tatar on his father and was famous Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz - the author of the novels "The Crusaders", "Flood», Quo Vadis.
"Lancers - Tatar word" oglan ", which literally means" boy ". In the Golden Horde oglanami called members of Khan's family line has ascended to the throne. Many oglanov concentrated in Poland, where they in military service and where any of them and the Lancers. " According to another version, the word "oglan" meant "brave" and so called personal guards of the Mongol khans in XIII-XIV centuries. They were armed with spears with flags and wore hats with a square top. Oglanov part in the XV century really settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and has been in the service of the Commonwealth. And that's where this kind of cavalry spread throughout Europe. Originally they were Mongolian robe; to the XX century it remained one of the feature - the root top shako, corresponding to the same top hats Mongolian, and still existing among the Kalmyks.
- This is a glorious and wonderful though, but the story ... What are the Tatars of the day?
- Well, we are experiencing the same difficulties as all living in Lithuania. Alas, in the Soviet era was destroyed most of our mosques, but because it is through religion that unites us - our community and was able to survive so long. Unfortunately, all our requests to the Vilnius municipality regarding restoration of historical justice encounter a wall of misunderstanding. For that year, starting with the restoration of Lithuanian independence, we go and ask. Only now all the options that we offer power, one worse than the other. Last time we were offered a plot of land for construction of a mosque on the outskirts of Vilnius street greasy. That's just the city government is offering, somehow forgot that the place before the war was a Christian cemetery. Yes, yes - there are now gardens - People sow ... and thrown on the bones. Build a mosque on the bones - is blasphemy. Further, the district lies over air route. Aircraft climb and approach, all over the heads of the faithful ...
- Among the main problems of the current Lithuanian state is considered to be the problem of emigration ...
- Unfortunately, the Tatars just tend to leave in search of a better life as Lithuanians, Russian or Polish. Personally, I know many of my fellow that had already left the States, Ireland or the United Kingdom. Undoubtedly, many will leave for Germany. People leave, raise families and tend not to come back ...
Chopped off due not only to the community, but with close relatives. I would like to note that in addition to emigration, we are concerned that the Lithuanian state hardly notices of our problems as a national minority. Yes, let us Tatars in Lithuania remained not so much - about 3,000 people, but our ancestors shed their blood for the fact that the present Lithuania was free and independent. Now that we get in return? When Rayzhyay monument was unveiled Vytautas the Great, neither the president nor the prime minister nor the speaker of the Diet could not come. Limited only by letters of congratulations. But it was the discovery of a single monument to Vytautas the Great in the year. Emphasize that the monuments discovered not Lithuanians and Tatars. And here are the first person in the country to ignore this fact, it is strange, is not it? The only major politician rank noticed this event became MEP Vytautas Landsbergis. Similarly, authorities are trying to ignore the fact that our communities need financial assistance to preserve our traditions. Until now, we were silent and did not protest, had hoped that the authorities themselves understand, but ... So, although we Tatars and humble people who are not used to no protests or to meetings, unlike other ethnic minorities or communities of Lithuania, but I think it was time for the authorities to pay more attention to our needs ...
In 1996 he created a community of Lithuanian Tatars. Since 1995 years, publishes the newspaper "Lietuvos totoryay", which is published in three languages - Lithuanian, Russian and Polish, and was one of the factors uniting the interests of all Lithuanian Tatars, consolidating efforts to address common challenges. In January 2005, the premiere of the film "The Descendants Lithuanian murzas on earth." In the year of the 1000th anniversary of Kazan, this film was one of the winners of the film festival "Golden Minbar". June 26, 2010 in one of the oldest settlements Lithuanian Tatars - in the village Rayzhyay Alytus district - was a monument to the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas in connection with the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald. In the 2009 book "Lithuanian Tatars in history and culture."