National minorities in China
TatarsTatars living in China is very small - five and a half thousand. However, in comparison with the number of any other indigenous people living in China, will feel few. To understand this figure, it is sufficient to recall that the Tatar diaspora, considered very active in Finland and the United States account for a thousand people. In Australia, home to 500 Tatars, but in Turkey and Romania (Burdjanian Tatars) their number reaches 30,000.
Tatars in China are on the number 54 spot (and in general, there are peoples in China 56). Along with the Tatars ethnic minorities in China, the number of which is not more than a hundred thousand - Bulan, Tajiks, Achan, pumiytsy, Evenki, pusuantsy, Jingzi, dyno, Deane, baoantsy, Russian, Uighurs, Uzbeks, menbaytsy, orochony, duluny, hechzheytsy, gaoshantsy and lobaytsy. Due to the small number of Tatars allowed to bring three children in the family.
On when the transmigration of Tatars in China, There are differing opinions. The first mention of the Tatars in the Chinese historical sources refer to the Tang era. Committed in the XIII century military campaigns in the West Mongols called Tatars. During this period has already been largely formed Tatar nationality.
Most sources say that the resettlement of the Tatars in China began in the period of construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) in 1898. They actively participated in the construction of the road, did business. Slowly developed Tatar community in northern China - Manchuria.
At the beginning of XX century in Harbin, Hailar, Mukden and other cities were established Muslim religious communities.
By 1940, the Tatar colony in Manchuria had more than 1.5 thousand people. During the second world war there was a massive outflow of Tatars in Europe, USA and Australia. Leaders Tatar communities in Manchuria after the Japanese surrender in 1945 was arrested by the Soviet counterintelligence, Tatar communities ceased to exist. Today in Harbin was home to only one Tatar family.
Located on the Sino-Russian border city of Manzhouli Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was founded in 1902 and became a kind of bridge to which migrants from Russia to China. Today it is - a major transport hub, sprawling in the early 1990s, when once again began to develop Russia's trade with China.
Hard to imagine that before the XX century there was only steppe, inhabited only nomadic herders. It was they who gave the name of the neighborhood. Legend has it that at the northern foot of Mount Kholkin once appeared a spring. Water from a beating with such force that it does not freeze in the winter. Nomads named the place "Kholkin Bulag," which meant "a powerful source." In 1902 there was built a railway station, the first on the Chinese Eastern Railway.
Station called Manchukuo, and gradually the old name has been forgotten, replaced now known Manzhouli.
Today, the city is home to about 160,000 people in more than twenty nationalities, including Tatars, Mongols, Han, Hui, Koreans, Evenki, Orochi and Russian.
The second habitat Tatars in China - in the west, in Xinjiang. In the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (XUAR), according to Chinese official statistics, in 1998, 4873 Tatars live (according to Tatar national organizations - more than 5500). In the cities of Urumqi and there Ghulja Tatar national centers. In the capital's university professors Xinjiang's 8-Tatars. A long time in the Xinjiang branch of the Academy of Sciences of China worked Ildan Ishakov.
Tatar merchants came here in the middle of the XIX century. By the end of the XIX century is in all major cities of Xinjiang Tatar existed shopping districts. Besides trade, the main occupations were Crafts (furriery business and tanning).
In the city there Ghulja separate district - "foot-city." In the "foot-city" acted Tatar school, mosque, worked Tatar community theater, music, dance and graphic circles, national social movements. Tatar diaspora considered the most educated, organized and enterprising estate.
Tatar first school appeared in China in 1913. It was created in Ghulja Gabdulla Diamonds, whose descendants still live here.
In 1927, after the establishment of the Kuomintang regime began the persecution of the non-Chinese. Many Tatar businessmen ruined. Therefore, the Tatars headed resistance Kuomintang. At the head of the popular armed uprising of 1944-1945 were Uighurs in Xinjiang Alikhan-Thuret, Tatars Abd Karim Abbasov, Fatih Muslimov Rahim jean Sabirhazhiev.
November 12, 1944 was proclaimed East Turkestan Republic (STS), headed by the Prime Minister of Alikhan-Thuret. In January 1946, the Chinese authorities have granted broad autonomy and democratic rights and freedoms of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
In 1953 the school was closed, and the Tartars have been unable to study in their native language, which is now supported in families.
In 1954, by agreement of the Soviet and Chinese governments began the repatriation of Tatars from Xinjiang in the USSR, where they settled mainly in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Those who did not go to the Soviet Union during the "cultural revolution" were repressed. Among them was an outstanding statesman and China Burhan Shahidi, a native of the village of Aksu Buinsky region of Tatarstan. After graduating from the University of Berlin, he served in the Kuomintang administration consul in Zaysan. Since 1946 worked in the administration of Xinjiang and soon headed it. In 1955 he was transferred to the Government of China in Beijing. He held a number of senior government, political and social positions in the State Council, the CPC Central Committee, the Presidium of the People's Great Hural, the Peace Committee of China and others.
Burhan Shahidi fluent in 11 Eastern and European languages, knew creativity Tatar poets and writers who maintained contacts with the scientific community of Tatarstan. Until his death (27 August 1989) Burhan Shahidi was mayor of the city of Urumqi.
Tatars have their own written language, based on the Arabic script. In view of cohabitation with the Kazakhs and Uighurs, as well as in connection with the close contacts with these nationalities Tatars Tatars also use Kazakh and Uighur script.
Most Tatars in China - followers of Islam.